A. Mertens, "Who was a Christian in the Holy Land?" - Encyclopedia

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Jacob, Armenian bishop. A pavement in the chapel north of the Russian Convent on Mount of Olives has an Armenian inscription: 'This is the monument of the lord (= bishop) Jacob, made on (his) request'. The pavement of the 5th/6th century was discovered in 1893.

Jacob of Porta, Blessed, Franciscan. He was born in Base] (Switzerland) in 1282. Johannes of Ravensburg (1337-1346) mentions him (1344) in the Holy Land. Jacob died in his country in 1356. The Franciscans remember him on June 21.

Jacob, the patriarch. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has his memory on Oct 8 in Bethlehem (or in Bethel?). North of Bethlehem is the tomb of Rachel, the wife of Jacob; in Bethel (now Beitin) Jacob saw in a dream, a ladder which reached from earth to heaven. (Gen 28, 12)

House of Jacob. On the height of Tantur, north of Bethlehem, a house was indicated as 'the place where Rachel died'. Rachel was buried along the way, nearer to Bethlehem.

Tent of Jacob (Ader): East of Bethlehem (a thousand paces from Bethlehem, says Eusebius (265-340), is the Migdal Ader (Eder) of Genesis 35, 21. To this place Jacob retired, after the death of Rachel, which happened in the 'house of Jacob'. Migdal Eder means Tower of the Flock. - The calendar of Jerusalem mentions a pilgrimage to this place. Epiphanius (9th cent.) says that to the east of Bethlehem was a monastery called Poemnium (=of the flock), where the angel appeared to the shepherds. (Shepherds' Field)

Death of Jacob. It is remembered by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 28th day of the month Nahasse (= twelfth month, Aug 4-Sept 2): Joseph (of Egypt) mourned for him, and the Egyptians with him. And then Joseph put him on the chariot of Pharaoh, and brought him to the land of Canaan and buried him with his fathers.

Jacobite Syrians in Jerusalem. see: Gauffier, Frankish knight.

Jacobus Alphaei (James, the son of Alphaeus) (Mt 10, 3) He is commemorated by the Greeks on Oct 8; by the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Oct 8. By Greeks and Georgians the apostle James, the son of Alpheus, is distinguished from James, the Less, and from James the Great. The Catholic Greeks have the feast of Jacobus Alphaei on October 9. St. Epiphanius of Cyprus and St. Gregory of Nyssa distinguish between the apostle James, the son of Alphaeus, and James, the brother (?) of the Lord.

Jacobus de Puy. He was Superior of the Franciscans and Custos of Syria. He was martyred at Safed in 1266.

Jacobus et Jeremias, martyrs, Minoritae. Jacobus da Puy (de Podio) (de Puy) and brother Jeremias of Genoa were Franciscans. Together with the Prior of the Templars, Hugo, they were condemned at Safed in June 1266 by Baybars. The bodies of the three, together with the corpses of other Christians, were thrown in a grotto. This grotto has been discovered in the 19th century. (Geissler Aegidius, Das Martyrergrab in Safed, in 'Das Heilige Land' 25 (1881) S. 121-126)

Jacobus, deacon. He wrote, round 451, the Life of St. Pelagia, the Penitent. (AA.SS. Oct 8)

Jacobus. See: Johannes Jacobus Fernandez, Martyr 1860.

Jacobus de Vitriaco, bishop of Acre, Saint, 1216. He is mentioned in Acta Sanctorum on May 1. Analecta Bollandiana mention Epistola Jacobi ad beatam Lutgardem.

Jacobus Pantaleone, Latin patriarch of Jerusalem in Acre 1255-61. (May, Prop. AA.SS.) He is mentioned on Aug 30 in Vita S. Petri confessoris de Trebis.

Jacques d'Avesnes (Jacobus de Avesnis). This Flemish knight was indicated at Calabria (Italy) by the Flemish crusaders as their commander. On five ships the group arrived in the Holy Land in 1189. He partook at the battle of Acre (Oct 4, 1189). He died in 1191. The AA.SS. mention him on Sept 7.

Jacques de Puy (France). Franciscan martyr at Safed in 1266, together with the Franciscan Jeremiah of Lecce (?). The Martyrologium Franciscanum had the feast on July 25. Both have the rank of 'Blessed'. - Saladin took Safed in December 1188. In 1240 it was recaptured by the Crusaders, and it was rebuilt by the Knights Templars. In 1266 Safed was conquered by the Mamluk Sultan Baybars.

Jacques de Vendôme, Frenchman. Father Eugene Roger of Paris (round 1620) wrote: Jacques de Vendôme was charged by the Pope to be the Superior of the Franciscans at Nazareth. Jacques was during 8 years in function. Fakher ed-Din has given permission in 1620 to the Franciscans to reside in Nazareth.

Jacques de Wrone, Augustinian monk. He mentions (1336) on Mount of Olives the Grotto of the Credo.

Jacques de Vitry. Born 1160-1170. He visited Jerusalem in 1180. (?) In his 'Historia Orientalis' the chapter 79 is on the Armenians in Jerusalem. See: Jacobus de Vitriaco, bishop of Acre. Jacques de Vitry was born in France. He was canon at Oignies (Belgium) Ste Marie d'Oignies; died in 1213. Jacques de Vitry wrote her biography. In 1216, Jacques was ordained a bishop for Acre by Pope Honorius on July 31. In 1228 he became cardinal-bishop of Frascati; he died in 1240, he was buried at Oignies.

Jaffa, Count of Jaffa. The count of Jaffa was under excommunication. Before the battle against the Kharezmians in 1240, he asked the Patriarch, who was there with a relic of the Cross, for absolution. The patriarch refused. Again the Count of Jaffa asked, to be refused again. But then the bishop of Rama (Ramleh?), impatient of the obstinacy of the Patriarch, cried out: 'Never mind. The patriarch is wrong and 1 absolve you myself. ' Of course one priest's absolution is as good as another's, and the Count of Jaffa went into battle, to be killed with a light heart.

Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem and Cross in 1848. When Mgr. Valerga, the newly (in 1847) appointed Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, made his solemn entry in Jerusalem on Jan 17, 1848, the banner with the patriarchal cross decorated the Jaffa Gate. Since the Crusades, it was the first time that a cross was used in such a procession.

Jaffa Gate and Citadel. Jaffa Gate was connected with the Citadel by a low crenellated wall crossing a moat. This wall was removed (and never rebuilt). So Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany could in 1898 enter the city on horseback without passing through the Jaffa Gate itself.

Jair, grandfather of Esther: Amin-Adab, the son of Iya'eru (= Jair), of the tribe of Benjamin, whom Nebuchadnezzar the King carried off into captivity, had a beautiful daughter, whose name was Esther. (Ethiopian Synaxarium, Talkhshash 24)

Jairus, president of the synagogue in Capharnaum, whose daughter Jesus raised from death. Jairus is not venerated in the liturgy. Mk 5, 21-43 and Lk 8, 40-45 mention the name. In Mt 9, 18-26 no name is given, the man is called 'a ruler'.

James, Abba. He was the fiftieth Archbishop of Alexandria. This saint was appointed archbishop in the sixteenth (or seventeenth) year of the reign of the King of Egypt, whose name was AI-Muizz in God, which is, being interpreted, 'he who is obedient to God', the brother of the governor, the son of Haron Rashid (Harun ar Rashid) (Harun Rashid ruled 786-800). James Abba had a church built in the city of Jerusalem, so that it might be an asylum for these of the True Faith who arrived there. Jamas Abba sat upon his archiepiscopal throne of Alexandria for ten years, eight months and four days, and he died in peace. (Ethiopian Synaxarium, Yakatit 14)

James Adelphoteus. (Greek liturgy Oct 23) He was the son of Joseph and the brother or cousin of Jesus Christ, and one of the main supporters of the Early Church. In 59 he was elected as first bishop of Jerusalem. Because of his significant work, he was arrested by the Pharisees, thrown down from the pinnacle of the temple and stoned and beaten to death round 62. The Epistle of St. James is attributed to him. (Compare: James the Less (the Minor) in the Greek liturgy on Oct 9) James Adelphoteus is the patron of the Arabic speaking Greek Orthodox community, which has its parish Church south of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre.

James, brother of the Lord: In the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Oct 22; in the Greek Synaxaries on Oct 23.

Martyrdom of James, brother of the Lord, finding of James, the Apostle, of Simeon, and of Zachariah, the priest. Dec 1 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar: the monk Epiphane, after a revelation, found the relics of these three saints in 351; the bishop Cyril (of Jerusalem, 349-386) took the relics away on Dec 1. (Analecta Bollandiana, 8, 1889, p. 124)

James, son of Alphaeus, martyr. The Ethiopian Synaxarium relates on Yakatit 10: This blessed Apostle after having preached the Gospel in all the cities, returned to Jerusalem, and went into the synagogue of the Jews. The Jews brought him to the Emperor Kalwadewos (Claudius? 41-54), the deputy of the Emperor of Rome. The Jews calumniated this disciple, saying: 'This man hath preached to us of another king besides Caesar. ' The Emperor commanded the soldiers to stone the Apostle James, and they make haste and stoned him. Certain believing men buried his body near the sanctuary.

James, Apostle. He was a son of Zebedee and Salome, he was called with his brother John by Jesus while they were in the fishing boat with their father (Mt 4, 21 - Mk 1, 19; Lk 5, 10). The mother of James and John asked that they might sit next to Jesus in His kingdom. John and James also asked Jesus whether they should ask that fire from heaven should strike the inhospitable Samaritans (Lk 9, 54). Jesus nicknamed them Boanerges, 'sons of thunder' (Mk 3, 17). James was admitted with Peter and John to some episodes from which the rest of the Twelve were excluded: the raising of the daughter of Jairus, (Mk 5, 37; Lk 8, 51), the transfiguration (Mount Tabor), the agony at Gethsemane. - James, the Apostle, was beheaded by King Herod Agrippa I round 42 (Acts 12, 2). The Martyrologium Romanum has his feast on July 25. (in Greece the feast is on April 30) - This James is called the Great, the Greater (Jacobus Major). The Armenians venerate the spot of his beheading in the Church St. James, Armenian Quarter in Jerusalem. The Franciscans of Nazareth pilgrimage on July 25 to the village Yafa, southwest of Nazareth. A local tradition places there the house of Zebedee and his sons James and John. This James the Greater (Jacobus Major) is venerated in Compostella, Spain.

James the Major and the Armenians: According to Armenian tradition, the head of James the Major was brought to the Virgin Mary, sitting in the house of James (= James the Less(er), the later bishop of Jerusalem, who ordered it to be buried close at hand. The burial-place of the head of James the Major is venerated under an altar, which is on the left side (north side) of the church St. James. - In the same church is venerated the throne of St. James the Less(er). This James was thrown from the temple precint into the valley of Cedron, about 62 AD.

James the Major beheaded in Joppe? Odoric de Fr. wrote: 'postea in via ad montem (= Sion) invenitur ecclesia Sancti Jacobi Zebedei, quae est Armeniorum. Ubi olim repositum fuit ejus corpus per manus angelorum de Joppe, ubi fuit decollatus. ' Philippe Brosserrius (Revue de l’Orient Latin, IX, p. 351 n. b.): «Postea debet homo ire ad montem Syon et in itinere invenitur ecclesia B. Jacobi majoris filii Zebedei, quae est Hermeneorum. Ibi est locus, ubi quondam repositum fuit caput ipsius Jacobi, allatum de Yoppen per manus angelorum et ibi fuit decollatus, ut quidam dicunt; alii vero quod in Jerusalem, ubi est ecclesia ipsius, decollatus fuerit, quod magis credo.»

James the Less(er), the Minor (Greek liturgy on Oct 9). He was the son of Alphaeus, and one of the 12 apostles. If he was the Lord's 'brother', it was he who presided over the Christian community in Jerusalem and there suffered martyrdom round 62 by being thrown down from the pinnacle of the temple. This view, however, is not generally accepted. The Roman Catholic Church had his feast on May 1. His feast was together with the feast of the Apostle Philip. Since the reform of the liturgy, the feast of both apostles is on May 3. -James the Less is also called Apostle, although he did not belong to the twelve apostles, chosen by Jesus. James the Less is the patron of the Latin diocese of Jerusalem. On the east slope of the valley of Cedron, opposite the temple, is the so-called Tomb of St. James. Two columns support a Doric architrave with an inscription that it is the tomb of the family of Beni Hezir. The monument can be entered on the right side. The Chair of St. James, which is venerated in the Armenian Church of St. James (Major) refers to St. James the Less.

James who was torn to pieces (Jacobus intercisus). A Crusader chapel of St James is situated behind Christ Church. The chapel is now a mosque. (Hanauer, Walks in and around Jerusalem, 1926) The mosque is called Yakoubiyeh el Adjemi by the Muslim writer Moudjir ed Din al Ulaimi (1494). It means St. James, torn to pieces. This James, (Jacobus Intercisus) was a Persian, martyred in 421 (349?) and his remains were brought to Jerusalem by Peter Iberian. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has his feast on Nov 12. The Mart. Rom. has his veneration (and of other martyrs) on Nov 27.

James the Ascetic. He lived in Nitria, Palestine ([Egypt]?), for fifteen years. Evil men sent a harlot to his cave, but he converted her. He is mentioned in the 'Apophthegmata'. (Jan 28)

James of Alexandria in Lombardy. From 1475 to 1478 he was Superior of the Franciscan Convent of Mount Sion. He died in Egypt on Good Friday, March 20, 1478.

James of Berne (Switzerland). He visited the Holy Land in 1346.

James, deacon. He wrote the Life of monk Dositheus, in Greek language. He died in 530.

James Delphin. He was the first Guardian (= Franciscan superior) (1434-1438) on Mount Sion. He repaired the Chapel of the Holy Ghost. Sultan Jaqmaq (1438-1453) ordered the removal of the Friars of Sion to Cairo. The Negus of Abyssinia protested, and the sultan did not execute the removal.

James, penitent at the Carmel, 5th/6th century. His feast is in May. (Acta Sanctorum, Prop. XXX)

Januarius. First bishop of Jericho. He assisted at the Council of Nicaea in 325.

Jarvis Major C. S. He was British governor of Sinai in the 1930s; he encouraged the Beduins to set up permanent dwellings in Kuseima (a Beduin hamlet); the project met with limited success.

Jason, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Tarsus, according to the Greek list. The Martyrologium Romanum has the feast of Jason in Cyprus on July 12. Jason and Sosipater are named by St Paul in his letter to the Romans 'my kinsmen' (Rom 16, 21). Jason and Sosipater, both of the 70 disciples, are venerated in the Greek liturgy on April 28.

Jawan (plural Jawani): Arabic for Greek. Jawan indicates the Greek nationality, the Greek people, but not the Greek-Orthodox religion.

Jean. - Georgian Life of Jean. see Elijah, Ascension of Elijah.

Jean de Socolova (Socolovia), Captain, Chevalier du St. Sépulchre. His name is mentioned on the cover (inside) in a copy of Belon du Mans, Paris 1588. It is not sure that Jean has been in Palestine.

Jean Guthman. He was taken prisoner by Nur-al-Din on June 19, 1157 near the Bridge of the Daughters of Jacob. Jean was conducted to Damascus.

Jean de Maundeville. (1332 or later). He visited the 'Tomb of Lot' at 3 miles east of Hebron.

Jebel Osha in East Jordan. It is the supposed burial-place of the prophet Osha (=Arabic for Hosea). According to a Jewish tradition, Hosea was from Galaad. He is said to have been buried near the city Es-Salt. On top of Jebel Osha is the weli of nebi Osha. It is built near a big oak. The weli is venerated by the Muslims.

Jenin (town in Samaria) see: Bavarian Airmen Memorial.

Jeremiah, Prophet. Jeremiah's vocation came to him in the 13th year of King Josiah (626 BC). Jeremiah was a na'ar, a boy, at the time of his vocation. He was born at Anatoth, 5 Km. north of Jerusalem and was possibly a descendant of Abiathar. In 621 BC, a book of the Law was discovered in the temple and this text became the basis of a religious reform under King Josiah. The anti-Babylonian party forced King Zedekiah (597-587)to revolt. King Nabuchadnezzar took Jerusalem in 597. Jeremiah was well treated as a Babylonian sympathizer. He was offered the choice of residence in Babylonia or in Judah. Jeremiah chose Judah. When the Babylonian governor Gedaliah was murdered, the Jewish community forced Jeremiah and his helper, Baruch, to accompany the Jews on their flight to Egypt. When these Israelites in Egypt took up the worship of the 'queen of heaven' Jeremiah rebuked them. A later Jewish tradition relates that he was stoned to death by the rebuked men in Egypt. His memory is on May 1 in Mart. Rom. - A legend tells: Jeremiah in Jerusalem retired to the 'Caves of Jeremiah' (north of the city-walls) and composed there his 'Lamentations'- The Latin Patriarchate venerates Jeremiah on May 11. The Greek Church on May 1.

VIIIage of Jeremiah. Archdeacon Theodosius (round 530) mentions relics of Jeremiah in Anatoth, the native village of the prophet. From the highway Jerusalem to Nablus, a road leads to the right to Anata (4 Kms) Right of this road is a hill, Ras Kharrubeh (Hill of the Carob Tree). The hill is the site of the Biblical Anata (Anatoth), the home of prophet Jeremiah. (Jer 1, 1) To Anatoth King Solomon relegated the highpriest Abiathar (1 Kings 2, 26). In the actual village of Anata (this stands on the site of the Anatoth of Roman and Byzantine eras) is a Russian property. It has remains of what might have been the Byzantine church (perhaps in honour of prophet Jeremiah). From the actual Anata, the road continues to wadi Farah. Jeremiah and Egypt. The Ethiopian Synaxarium has on Ter 21 'Salutation to Jeremiah... He destroyed wild beasts and fierce lions by the power of his prayer, and therefore his festival is celebrated in Egypt'. - The book 'Vitae Prophetarum' relates that Jeremiah was buried in Taphnai (Egypt). His tomb protected against serpents. King Alexander the Great transferred the relics to the new-built Alexandria, divided them in 'a circle', as protection against serpents. (M. Simon, Les Saints d'Israël dans la dévotion de l'Eglise Ancienne, in Revue d'Histoire et de Philosophie Religieuses, 34, 1954, 98-117)

Jeremiah, prophet, and Isaiah, prophet. Both prophets were commemorated together in the church of the Resurrection on July 21, according to the Palestinian-Georgian calendar.

Jeremiah, an Armenian monk. Cyril of Scythopolis, in his 'Life of Sabas' writes: 'During the year that followed, there came three Armenians, an older man, who was called Jeremiah, and two disciples, Paul and Peter. Sabas gave them a cell and a cave north of his original cave, and the use of the first little oratory in Armenian on Saturdays and Sundays'. - The grotto of Jeremiah is visible until today in the Laura of Mar Sabas.

Jeremias, martyr of Alexandria. He was beheaded in Caesarea, Palestine, in 309, together with Elias, Isaias, Samuel, Daniel. Feast Feb 16.

Jeremias (of Genoa) martyred in 1266 at Safed. See Jacobus de Puy. (Compare Jacques de Puy; Three Martyrs at Safed)

Jerome of Bethlehem, St. Greek liturgy, June 15. He was born in Strido, Dalmatia, in 342. Brought up as a Christian, he studied in Rome. About 374 he went to Syria and spent some years with the hermits in the desert east of Antioch. He was ordained a priest in Antioch and served in Rome as papal secretary from 382 to 385. Pope Damasus directed him to revise the Latin version of the New Testament. In 386 Jerome settled in Bethlehem and taught Greek and Latin to local children. His Latin translation of the complete Bible from Hebrew and Greek became known as the Vulgate. Jerome engaged in controversial writings about the teachings of Origen. Jerome died in Bethlehem in 420. The liturgical veneration of St. Jerome was never important in the East. The Latin Church honours him as Doctor Ecclesiae and has his feast on Sept 30.

Jerome, martyr of Egypt. He was martyred in Caesarea, Palestine, under Emperor Galerius (305-311). Feast on Feb 16.

Jerusalem. The name of a martyr during the pre-Nicene persecutions in the 3th century. (Greek liturgy, July 26)

Jerusalem of Lycaonia. Together with Septeminus of Lycaonia and Fortunatus, Jerusalem suffered martyrdom during the Diocletian persecution (284-313). Septeminus is venerated by the Greek liturgy on April 16.

Jerusalem Cross. This symbol is formed by a big cross with in its four fields a small cross. Von Schick Conrad writes in Palestine Exploration Fund, 1894, pp. 188-189: 'Given the fact that these types of crosses were in use in Armenia as early as the 9th century, the Armenians appear to be the first designers and the first users of the Christian Jerusalem Cross'. After the Crusades the five crosses were interpreted as the five countries which partake to the Crusades: France (for the big cross), Germany, England, Spain, Italy (without indication of the field of each country) - Devotion can interpret the five crosses as the five wounds of Jesus Crucified. This interpretation is sometimes given when the Jerusalem Cross is represented together with the Franciscan emblem of the naked arm of the Crucified Jesus and the arm in cloth of the stigmatized Francis of Assisi. This Franciscan emblem indicates the property of the Custody of the Holy Land. At the 5th Station (Simon helps Jesus) the naked arm of Jesus is pointing to the left, the clothed arm of Francis is directed to the right.

Jerusalem, burning and destruction, in 614 by the Persians. Strategius wrote that the burning happened on May 17, and the destruction on May 20, 614. - On May 17 the Greek liturgy remembers in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre the burning (Jerusalem on Fire). The Palestinian-Georgian calendar remembers the burning on May 17, the destruction on May 20.

Jerusalem Patriarchs from James (= James the Less) to Modestus (631-634) They are remembered on May 17 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. (Till 451 Jerusalem was a bishopric; in 451 at the Council of Chalcedon Jerusalem became a Patriarchate).

Bishops of Jerusalem

The year indicates death or end of office

round 62 - James, the Less, brother of the Lord, was stoned
round 107 - Simeon's death - Feb 18. Nov 1, May 20
2nd cent. - Justus - Nov 24
 - Zacchaeus-Zacharias - Aug 23
 - Tobias - Dec 17
 - Benjamin - Dec 11
 - Johannes I - June7
round 120 - Matthias - Jan 30
round 124 - Philippus - Aug 4
2nd cent. - Seneca
 - Justus
 - Levi - March 1
 - Ephrem - Feb 1, April 4
 - Joseph
round 134-148 - Judas-Quiriacus - May 4
156 - Marcus - Oct 22
2nd Cent. - Cassianus (17th bishop)
 - Publius - Jan 21
 - Maximus, Julianus, Gajanus, Symmachus, Cajus, Julianus, Capiton (he died 185), Maximus, Antoninus, Valens, Dolichianus (he died 195)
round 212 - Narcissus, the 30th bishop - Oct 29
212-250 - Alexander, martyr - March 18
 - Dius, Germanion, Gordius (31st-33rd)
266-268 - Mazabanes and Hymenaeus.
304 - Zabdas (or Zamdas) - Sept22
311 - Hermon, 38th bishop - March 7
333 - Macarius I - March 10
349 - Maximus 111 - May 5
386 - Cyrillus of Jerusalem - March 18
415 - Serenus, pseudo-episcopus - June7
417 - Johannes Il - March 5
418 - Praylius.
451 - Theodosius, haereticus, intrusus - Jan 20

At the Council of Chalcedon in 451 Jerusalem was made a Patriarchate.

Jerusalem-monks. They travelled to Egypt in 391. (AA.SS. Jan 15, May 2, June 24)

Jerusalem: persecution in 1524. Sultan Suleyman I, surnamed 'The Magnificent' ruled from 1520 to 1566. He conquered Belgrade in 1521. In Jerusalem the Moslems asked the Mufti whether Christian ceremonies were not a profanation of the nearby Tomb of David on Mount Sion. The Mufti had recourse to Suleyman, in Constantinople. An order was issued from the Sublime Porte on March 1523 to the Governor of Damascus to expel the Christians from the convent of Mount Sion and to hand over the place to the bearer of the order, Mohammed el Adjami. Khurrem Pascha expelled the Franciscans from Mount Sion in January 1524.

Jerusalem: persecutions from 1537 to 1540. Admiral Doria Andrea, in the service of Emperor Charles V, achieved successes against the Turks. In 1533 Doria occupied Tunis, and he won a battle in July 1537. The Franciscans in Jerusalem were accused of harbouring important Europeans of warlike intent. On September 16, 1537 the Franciscans of Mount Sion were imprisoned in the Tower of the Pisans (=Citadel of David), and from there transferred to Damascus. There the Superior, Thomas of Nursia, died in the third year of his imprisonment (= 1539).

Jerusalem: Patriarchs from 451, Council of Chalcedon to 1099, conquest by the crusaders.

The year indicates death or end of office.

458 - Juvenalis, the first patriarch, - July 2
478 - Anastasius
486 - Martyrius, - Jan 20
494 - Sallustius
518 - Elias I, - July 4
518-574 - Johannes III (died 524), Petrus (died 544), Eustochius, Macarius II (died 574)
594 - Johannes IV - Jan23
601-609 - Amos, Isaac
631 - Zacharias, - Feb 21
634 - Modestus, - Dec 16
638 - Sophronius I, - March 11

The Arabs conquered Jerusalem in 637.

638-680 - Locum tenentes: Sergius, bishop of Joppe; Stephanus, bishop of Dora; Theodorus, priest
7th cent. - Anonymus - June24
round 760 - Johannes V - April 2
760-772 - Eusebius, Theodorus, Basilius
round 800 - Elias II (death), - Feb 25
round 807 - Georgius (death)
802-823 - Fortunatus (pseudo-patriarcha), - Feb 26
round 821 - Thomas 1, - Feb 11
821-907 - Basilius, Sergius, Salomon, Theodosius, Elias III
907-981 - Sergius II, Leontius, Anastasius, Christodorus I
Agathonus, Johannes VI, Christodorus II,
Thomas II, Joseph
round 1012 - Hieremias, Theophilus, Nicephorus
1016-1024 - Arsenius, - July 26
round 1045 - Jordanus
round 1050-1099 - Sophronius II, Euthymius, Simeon
without year St. Paphnutius, martyr, - April 19

in 1099 on July 15 the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem and erected a Latin patriarchate.

Jesse, father of David. Jesse was from Bethlehem. David's family descended from Ruth the Moabite, who was married to Booz in Bethlehem. Booz and Ruth had as son Obed, who was the father of Jesse. Jesse is not venerated by an own feast in the liturgy.

Jesus: Feasts of the Lord Jesus with the corresponding Gospel in the Holy mass, in the Holy Land. Flight to Egypt, Feb 17, Mt 2, 1315; The Prayer of the Lord, Tuesday after Sunday Septuagesima (9th Sunday before Easter) Luke 22, 39-44; Memory of the Passion, Tuesday after Sunday Sexagesima (8th Sunday before Easter); Thorns of the Crown, Friday after Ash Wednesday, Jn 19, 11-5; Holy Spear and Nails, Friday after first Sunday of Lent, Jn 19, 28-35, Holy Shroud, Friday after second Sunday of Lent, Mc 15, 42-46; Five Wounds of the Lord, Friday after third Sunday of Lent Precious Blood of the Lord, Friday after fourth Sunday of Lent Corpus Christi, Thursday after Sunday of Holy Trinity Jn 6, 56-59; Eucharistic Heart of Jesus, Thursday after the Octave of Corpus Christi, Lk 22, 15-20; Sacred Heart of Jesus, Friday after the second Sunday after Pentecost, Jn 15, 9-16; Holy Redeemer, October 23, In 3, 13-18.

Jesus mocked near Golgotha. Daniel Abbas (1106-1107) mentions the fact that Jesus has been mocked near Golgotha, before the Crucifixion. The Greek 'Chapel of the Mocking' which is to the east side of Golgotha reminds us of such insulting. Here is preserved a fragment of the column on which Jesus sat while the soldiers mocked him. Such a mocking is represented by the sculptors, especially in the Netherlands. An exposition 'Het Laatgotisch Beelcisnijcentrum Leuven' (6 Oct -- 2 Dec 1979) in Stedelijk Museum, Leuven, showed 21 sculptures 'Christus op de Koude Steen' (Christ seated on the Cold Stone). The sculptures were from round 1500 and belonged to churches and chapels, in and round Leuven (Belgium).

Jesus as prisoner near Golgotha. Epiphanius monachus (round 940) mentions 'The Prison of Christ' in the northern part of the Garden of Joseph of Arimathea. The sanctuary recalls us that Jesus was a prisoner just before his crucifixion. The sanctuary is in an ancient Jewish tomb which was to the north side of Calvary. The sanctuary which is now a Chapel inside the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre belongs to the Greeks. But the sanctuary is incensed by Greeks, Armenians, Copts and Latins during their respective processions.

Jesuits in Jerusalem. They direct the Pontifical Biblical Institute, built in 1924-27, Rehov P. Emile Botta, West Jerusalem.

Jethro. He was the father-in-law of Moses. The Druse sanctuary Shu'eib (Arabic name for Jethro) near Kefar Hattin, west of the Lake of Galilee, gathers at the yearly feast on Jethro's birthday in April the Druse pilgrims. Palestine has some 35000 Druse.

Jews returning to Jerusalem after the conquest of 70. (Vita tertia S. Austremonii, c. III, n. 16) (AA.SS. Nov 1)

Joab. This general of David conquered the city of Jerusalem through the 'shaft' of Gihon (1 Ch. 11, 6). Joab killed in Hebron Abner in revenge for Abner's killing of his brother Asahel in combat. Joab murdered Amasa. David left a charge with Solomon to execute vengeance upon Joab for both murders (2 Sam 2, 5) - Joab is not venerated in the liturgies. Wadi el Askar (Valley of the Soldiers) near Gibeon reminds us of the battle wherein Abner killed Asahel (2 Sam 20, 8), who was the brother of Joab.

Joachim, St., husband of St. Anne, and father of the Holy Virgin. His feast was formerly on August 16 in Mart. Rom. - Going down the staircase inside the Church of the Assumption of Mary in the valley of Cedron, you have to the right the chapel, which is dedicated to SS. Joachim and Anne. - Joachim was called by three names: Joachim, Yonakir, Zaclok. He was of the seed of David, and of the tribe of Judah, for he was the son of Joachim, the son of Lazarus, the son of Eldad, whose tribe goes back to Solomon the king, the son of David. Salutation to Joachim, in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 7th day of the month Miyazya. - The Roman liturgy had formerly the feast of Joachim on Aug 16, but has actually the commemoration of Joachim and of Anne on July 26. The Martyrologium Romanum mentions on March 20 the birth of Joachim. The Georgian calendar has the feast of both parents on Sept 9.

Joachim, husband of Susannah in Babylon. He is mentioned in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on Maskaram 28.

Joachim, St., abbos Florensis. He came to Palestine round 1170. (Jacobus Graecus, Vita S. Joh., c. 1-11, n. 11-6) (AA.SS. May 29) A prophecy of St. Joachim on the third crusade (1189-1192) is related in AA.SS. on May 29.

Joachim of Fiore, abbas, SOCist, venerable. Born round 1130. Died March 30, 1202. He wrote ascetical and historico-philosophical books. -To be identified with Joachim St, abbas Florensis.

Joad, prophet in the Old Testament. In the Roman Catholic Church his memory is on March 30. A man of God came out of Judah to Bethel and prophesied against king Jeroboam I (922-901 BC) of Israel, who burned incense. After having threatened the king, the man of Judah began to return by another way. An old prophet of Bethel induced the man of Judah to come back to Bethel and to 'eat and drink in his house'. The Judah-man did so. The Bethel-prophet now foretold the death of the Judah-man. And indeed, as the Judah-man returned, he was killed by a lion. The Bethel-prophet buried the Judah-prophet in his own tomb and said to his sons: 'When I die, bury me in the grave in which the man of God is buried, lay my bones beside his bones' (1 Kings 13, 1-33) - In the 'Vitae Prophetarum' the unnamed man of Judah is called Joad (Joas, Joam, Joiada). And in Bethel is the tomb of this prophet who spoke against the king Jeroboam I of Israel.

Joannes Jacobus Fernandez, Blessed. This Franciscan lay brother was martyred at Damascus in 1860. Feast on July 10.

Joasaph. see: Josaphat in: BARLAAM and Josaphat.

Job, the Just. In the Greek Synaxaries, and in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar, Job is mentioned on May 6. The Roman Martyrology has Job on May 10. - Job in the land of Hus (perhaps the Hauran, east of the Upper Jordan) was stripped of all his goods and afflicted with a disease, in order that a dispute between Yahweh and Satan about the disinterestedness of Job's virtues might be settled. Job refused to blame God for his misfortunes. The Ethiopian Synaxarium salutes the death of Job on the 2nd of Genbot (ninth month, May 6-June 4).

Jocundus, bishop of Augusta Praetoria. He made, together with Gratus, St., his predecessor, a journey to Palestine round 470. (AA.SS. June 24; Sept 7)

Joel, St., Prophet. The Mart. Rom. has on July 13 the memory of Joel and Esdras. Joel is one of the twelve minor prophets. No dates are given regarding his life. The book 'Joel’ stands second in the twelve minor prophets. Joel 3, 1-5 is quoted in Acts 2, 16-17 with reference to the charisma of Pentecost, and Joel 3, 5 is quoted in Rm 10, 13. Joel is on Oct 18 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar; on Oct 19 in the Greek Synaxaries.

Johanna, sister of Richard I. In 1191 Richard I proposed that Saladin's brother, EI Adel, should marry his own sister Johanna, and both should rule Jerusalem. Johanna refused, but Richard made a three years peace. Now the Crusaders had the right to visit the Holy Sepulchre in small groups. Richard I (Coeur de Lion) left the Holy Land in Oct 1192. On his return he was captured and later ransomed.

Johannes, St., abbas Parmensis. He came to Palestine round 980. (Vita S. Joh., c. I, n. 2) (AA.SS. May 22)

Johannes ad Mare Rubrum, St. Together with Simon the Fool, John Fekru came to Palestine round 552. (Vita S. Sim., auct. Leontio, c. 1) (AA.SS. July 2; July 21: they name John with the addition 'ad Mare Rubrum' near the Dead Sea.)

Johannes Cantius, St. He came to Palestine round 1450. (AA.SS. Oct 20)

Johannes, episcopus Gothiae, St., and Longinus, deacon. They visited Palestine before 780. (Vita S. Joh., gr. et lat., c. I, n. 2) (AA.SS. June 26)

Johannes, Sanctus, Sancti Angeli frater. (falsus). He died in 1222. Patriarcha (falsus) of Jerusalem in Acre. Feast July 13 (Analecta Bollandiana IX, 275).

Johannes, St. Eremita Urtica, dioc. Burgensis. He came to Palestine before 1135. (Vita S. Joh., nA-5) (AA.SS. June 2)

Johannes, bishop of Caesarea Maritima in Palestine, 404. His feast is on Feb 26 in AA.SS.

Johannes, first bishop of Tiberias. He signed the decisions of the Council of Chalcedon (451).

Johannes Cassianus, St., abbot of Marseilles. He visited Palestine round 390-397. (AA.SS. July 23)

Johannes Climacus, St., monk on Mount Sinai, and his nephew George. They were in Palestine after 562. (AA.SS. March 30)

Johannes Eleemosynarius, St. He went to Cyprus in 616. (AA.SS. Jan 23)

Johannes Gradonicus, round 995 in Palestine. He is mentioned, together with Guarinus, abbas Cuxanenis. (AA.SS. Feb 7)

Johannes Hoyensis, Norvegiae cancellarius. He came to Palestine in 1417. (AA.SS. July 26)

Johannes de Monte Mirabili, Blessed. An expedition of him in 1188 is mentioned in AA.SS. May 29.

Johannes, martyr, at the site Edessa near Jericho. see: Cyrus.

Johannes Phocas. He was a soldier of Creta, and afterwards a monk. In 1177 he wrote 'De Locis Sanctis'. He mentions the glorious deeds of Emperor Manuel Comnenus (1143-1180).

Johannes, Sergius, Patricius and companions, martyrs in St. Sabas in 797. Their feast is on March 20 (AA.SS.).

Johannes Tomeus. In 'Vita S. Sabae, arch. Serviae, c. I, n. 2, 4' he gives a summary on the fourth crusade (1202-1204). The AA.SS. mention this summary on Jan 14.

Johannes Tribunus. Died 613. Stone (11) Museum Flagellation.

Johannicius, ex Bithynia. St. In Palestine, 800-806. (AA.SS. Nov 4)

Johanniter Hospiz at the 8th Station in Jerusalem. It belongs to the Prussian branch (Lutheran) of the Knights of St. John. Above the entrance is the armour. The rooms are now rented to families.

John the Baptist.

Conception: Sept 23 in the Greek liturgy; Sept 24 in ancient Latin Martyrologies. In the 15th century the Latin church dropped this feast. The conception was announced by the Archangel Gabriel to priest Zechariah in the temple of Jerusalem (Luke 1, 14).

Eve (vigil) of his birth. The Franciscan community of Ain Karem goes to the Franciscan chapel of St. John in the Desert. This shrine brings to mind the words of Luke 'And the child grew and was strengthened in spirit; and was in the desert until the day of his manifestation to Israel’ (Luke 1, 80). A grotto has been transformed into a chapel. There is a small spring, Ain el Habis (spring of the Hermit), its water collects in a basin.

Nativity. The Roman Church has the nativity on June 24. (Although John was 6 months older than Jesus, who birthday is celebrated on December 25) The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has the Nativity of John on June 25. The Melkite and the Greek-Orthodox liturgy have the Nativity on June 24.

His baptism of Jesus: On Jan 7 in the Greek liturgy. The Roman liturgy has the baptism on the Sunday after Jan 6.

Place where the Baptism is commemorated. On the west bank of the Jordan River, an altar was built in 1933. It was embellished in 1957 with a stairway in the form of an amphitheatre. More to the west, the Franciscans have another edicule: a cube of four walls, that is crowned with a dome. Beside the Franciscan enclosure is that of the Greek Orthodox, separated by a road. On the last Thursday of October, the Franciscan community of Jerusalem celebrates Holy Mass at the altar near the Jordan, and visits the Latin Church of Jericho, remembering the scene of Zacchaeus (Luke 18, 35 - 19, 10), and then climbs up to the Greek convent of Qarantal (Mount of Temptation) for a visit and for the reading of Matthew 4, 1-11.

His imprisonment and beheading. The imprisonment is commemorated by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the first day of the intercalary month, Paguemen (Sept 3-Sept 7). His beheading is recalled on Aug 29 by the Georgian liturgy and in the Greek Synaxarium, and in the Roman liturgy. According to the historian Josephus, the beheading took place in the fortress of Machoerus, east of the Dead Sea. The lectionary of Paris mentions for the beheading 'the building of John the patriarch' in civitatis margine. This lectionary associates with John's beheading also the prophet Eliseus.

Burial and Tomb of John. In the village of Sebaste (in Samaria) there is under the Crusaders' Church a crypt where the tomb for the corpse of John is venerated. On the slope of Sebaste, ruins of a Byzantine Church recall the beheading of St. John. - Marinus, bishop of Samaria, attended the Council of Nicaea in 325 and claimed that Samaria possessed the tombs of St. John the Baptist and of the prophets Abdias and Eliseus. Emperor Julian the Apostate (361-363) scattered the relics, but the Christians continued to venerate the tombs. The tombs are enclosed by a basilica in the village. The basilica was destroyed by the Persians in 614, but rebuilt by the Crusaders. After the victory of Hattin in 1187, the Muslims transformed the Latin Church into a mosque. A tradition added tho the tombs that of the Prophet Zacharias.

Fast at the beheading of John. Although the feast (of June 24) has a big solemnity, the fast is obligatory to mark our repulsion of the voluptuous banquet, during which Herod Antipas beheaded the Baptist. (So in the Melkite liturgy on Aug 29).

First finding of the head: It is remembered by Greek Synaxaries and by the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Feb 24. The invention is remembered by the Jacobite Syrians on Oct 26; according to Bibliotheca Hagiagraphica Graeca (BHG 840) the head was discovered in Emesa on Feb 24, but the head was placed on Oct 26 in a newly built church of the Precursor in Emesa.

Second finding of the head: After an apparition of the Precursor, two monks, pilgrims in Jerusalem, discovered the head in the house of Herod. A potter received the relic from the monks and venerated it. He left the relic to his sister. After her death the relic passed to the possession of several persons. The last one was a heretic monk-priest, Eustathus. By the Orthodox monks he was expelled from his grotto, where he had hidden the relic. It was discovered in the time of the archimandrite Marcellus, under the Emperor Valentinian and Marcian (450-457) and Uranius, bishop of Emesa. Bishop Uranius brought the head in the newly built church of Emesa. - The Ethiopian Synaxarium relates on Yakatit 30 another version that was given by St. John Chrysostom: the head uttered the words 'It is not right for thee to take thy brother's wife' for a period of fifteen years. Then it ceased and was buried in the Sea of Arabia. Two believing pilgrims who were brothers, dwelt in that place. St. John the Baptist appeared them and they took up his holy head, and carried it to their house and paid honour to it.

Third finding: It happened in 823. The head was found in the ground (not in an earthern pot as before). After a revelation the Emperor of Constantinople transferred the relic from Comanes to one of the sanctuaries in Constantinople. The Melkite liturgy remembers this third finding on May 25.

Translation of his right hand to Constantinople: is remembered on Jan 7.

Church of St. John the Baptist in Jerusalem: It dates from the 5th century. Its crypt was discovered in 1847, and restored for worship in 1926. The Greek Orthodox Patriarch allowed the Order of St John to held in this crypt occasional services. The baptistry of the church received in ancient days water from the nearby Pool of the Patriarch's Bath (Birket Hammann el Batrak) (Pool of Hezekiah), which is in the Christian Street.

Church of St. John the Baptist in Bethlehem. In 1954 the small mosque in the centre of Bethlehem was extended into a bigger one. The Greek Orthodox community provided the area for this extension to the west. Under the western part of the extended mosque were discovered an apse of a church and an octagonal baptistry font. The font was in reddish stone. The old stone was in honour of St. John the Baptist. More to the west, under the now parking ground, were discovered later remains of columns of a chapel in honour of St. Michael.

John, Apostle and Evangelist. Dec 27 in Mart. Rom. The son of Zebedee and the brother of James, one of the twelve Apostles.

John is not named in the 4th Gospel. Those who maintain that he is the author of the 4th Gospel identify him with the beloved disciple (Jn 13, 23) and with the unnamed disciple of Jin 1, 40. Three epistles bear the name of John. - In medieval times a structure with four arches (actually it is called Kahwat el Umdan (Cafe of the Columns) was held to be a church that was built on the site of the house of Zebedee, who had a fishshop in Jerusalem. This fishshop should explain why the unnamed disciple was known to the highpriest. (Jn 18, 15) - A local tradition indicates in Yafa, about 4 Kms southwest of Nazareth, a house of Zebedee and his sons James and John. - A biblical reference to John is in the Apocalypse 1, 9. If, as is customary (Justin, Dial., 81), the visionary John is identified with the son of Zebedee, then this John was at Patmos, off the coast of Asia Minor. An ancient cult of John at Ephesus is attested by the ruins of a basilica at Ephesus.

Assumption of John near Ephesus: The Assumption of John the Evangelist refers to the Gospel of John 21, 23 'The saying spread abroad among the brethren that this disciple was not to die; yet Jesus did not say, to him that he was not to die, but 'if it is my will that he remains until I come, what is that to you?' The Melkite liturgy has the Assumption of John the Evangelist on Sept 26. The Martyrologium of Jerusalem has it on Dec 27.

John into boiling oil. Tertullian (Praescript. Haer. 36) says that John was brought from Ephesus to Rome and was cast into a cauldron of boiling oil before the Latin Gate, but was miraculously preserved. This tradition is seemingly not historical, and the feast (May 6) has been Qmitted from the general calendar. - Other stories told of John's unwillingness to associate with the heretic Cerinthus in the public baths (lrenaeus, Adv. Haer. 3, 3, 4), his raising of a dead man to life. (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. 5, 18, 14), his reclaiming a robber for Christ (Clement of Alexandria, What Rich Man 42), and his repeating of the instruction 'Little children, love one another' (Jerome, On Gal. 6, 10). The Georgian liturgy has the feast of John martyr on Sept 26 the Greeks on May 8: here he is called John the theologian.

Chapel (Armenian) of St. John the Apostle: It is situated in the building that is east of the atrium which is before the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. The low door in the middle of the east wall bears copperplates with Armenian texts.

St. John of Acre. From the Order of St. John, Acre took the title or the name St. John of Acre. The later patron of the Order of St. John is John the Baptist. (Compare: John the Almoner)

John I, 7th bishop of Jerusalem, Saint, 2nd century. He is mentioned on Jan 12; May 10; June 7; Aug 23.

John II, archbishop of Jerusalem (386-417). This John built for the first time the Church Saint Sion in Jerusalem. John is mentioned with Modestus. St. Paula visited the Church Saint Sion in 386. John II was the 42th bishop of Jerusalem. (AA.SS. March 5, March 26, March 30, June 22) The Armenian lectionary mentions his feast on March 29. In 417-428 John II sent legates to Nola (Italy) . In 415 John transferred, together with Eusthonus, bishop of Sebaste, and with Eleutherus, bishop of Jericho, the relics of St. Stephen from the village of Kafargamala to Jerusalem. This transfer is remembered by the Melkite liturgy on Aug 2.

John III, bishop of Jerusalem (516-524) He died on April 20, 524, according to Cyril of Scythopolis. John III anathematized all the opponents of the Council of Chalcedon. John of Jerusalem was the son of a certain Marcian, who was bishop of Sebaste in Samaria. The feast of John III, together with that of the Emperor Marcian (450-457) was in the Church of the Apostles on July 9, according to the Palestinian-Georgian calendar.

Foundation of John, the patriarch. In his foundation (building) was the dedication of John the Baptist, on Dec 15, according to the Georgian liturgy.

Foundation of John: Place and founder are unknown. The foundation is mentioned in the Georgian calendar on July 3, Aug 8, Dec 12.

Foundation of John, the patriarch, in civitatis margine. This foundation is named on Aug 29 (Beheading of John the Baptist), Was the foundation (building) perhaps related to the deepening of the well, Bir Ayoub, near Siloe (also in the suburb), after a drought of five years?

John IV, patriarch of Jerusalem. He died in 594. His feast is on Jan 23. (Leontius, Vita S. Joh. Eleemos., c. VI, nr 35)

John V, patriarch of Jerusalem. Died circa 760. (AA.SS. April 2)

John VI, patriarch of Jerusalem. See: Sergius II.

John VII, patriarch of Jerusalem. He was murdered in 966 in Jerusalem by Moslem assassins and the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre was profaned. The murder of John VII was a reprisal of the Moslems for the victories of the Byzantine Emperor Nikephorus Foca after 960 over the Moslems.

John of Alexandria. He was an Arab and a soldier who became a Christian and worked together with Cyrus. He served as a physician and became one of the unmercenary saints as he refused to accept money. He suffered martyrdom in Alexandria in 292. The Greek liturgy has his feast on June 28. The Ethiopian Synaxarium tells: John, a soldier in the Imperial Army, in Alexandria, together with Abukir, under Emperor Diocletian (284-313). (Yakatit 6)

John of Aquitaine, Franciscan at Mount Sion. He witnessed on Nov 14, 1391 the decapitation of 4 Franciscans at Jerusalem.

John of Areopolis, bishop. An inscription (now in the Citadel of Kerak) mentions: 'In the time of the holy bishop John, this building has been restored in 492 after the earthquake' (This means 597-598 AD) (Zayadine F. Un séisme a Rabbat Moab (Jordanie) d'après une inscription grècque du Vime siècle. dans 'Berytus, Archaeological Studies, Vol XX, 1971, p. 139-141).

John of Brienne-sur-Aube (near Troyes in France). He was crowned as King of Jerusalem at Tyre in 1209. In 1216 Pope Honorius III (1216-1227) on the day of his coronation as Pope wrote a letter to John (July 25, 1216) to assure him about the crusade. John was the leader of the 5th Crusade (1218-1221). He arrived at Damietta in May 1218. Probably with his group was St. Francis of Assisi. As the Crusaders fell to quarrelling, Cardinal Pelagius, the Papal legate, took the command and marched on Caire. - In 1210 John married Marie de Montferrat, who was the widow of Amaury, king of Jerusalem. - John was the Latin Emperor of Constantinople from 1229 to 1237. He died on March 21, 1237. The AA.SS. mention him on August 31. John was the brother of Gauthier III.

John of Chariton. He lived in the 8th century. He entered monastic life as a disciple of Gregory of Decapolis. Following his death, John went to Jerusalem and finally settled in the Laura of St. Chariton in the wilderness of Judaea, where he died in peace. The Greek liturgy venerates him on April 18.

John of Choziba, bishop, St. (Greek liturgy on Oct 3). He was born between 440 and 450 in Upper Egypt. After having abandoned his monophysitic tenets, he entered as anchorite the wadi Qilt around 480. In 516 he was consecrated bishop of Caesarea, Palestine. After a while, he resigned from this office and returned to the monastery of Choziba in Wadi Qilt where he died between 520 and 530. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has his feast on June 3.

John of Choziba, monk. In the Greek Synaxaries on October 28. The AA.SS. mention on Oct 28 Johannes Aegyptius, Sanctus, Chozibae monasteri instaurator. (Vita, ex Menaeis, lat. vers) Round 505.

John of Colonia in Armenia. See: John of Kolonia, the Hesychast.

John of Constantinople. Ch. Clermont-Ganneau copied in 1868 a Greek inscription, which was upside down in the northern wall of Jerusalem, near Bab ez Zalhireh (Flowers Gate, Herod's Gate). The inscription contained the dedication of a gerokomeion (house of aged people). This house for old women was founded, under the invocation of the Virgin Mary, by John and Verina of Constantinople.

John of Damascus. He was born at Damascus in 675, and was the son of a Christian official at the court of Abdul Melek in Damascus. John was educated by a Greek monk. When the Emperor Leo III ordered the destruction of icons, John wrote a defence of the icons. He entered the monastery of St. Sabas, east of Jerusalem. There he died in 754. His most important writing is: 'The Fount of Knowledge'. The Greek liturgy venerates him on Dec 4; the Latin Church had his feast on March 27; the Roman Martyrology has his commemoration on May 6. The body of John of Damascus is still in the monastery of St. Sabas in the Chapel of St. John Damascene. - The Ethiopian Synaxarium remembers the death of John on Takhshash 8. It mentions: 'And the archbishop of Jerusalem made John a priest against his will'.

John de Douai (France). This pilgrim in Jerusalem witnessed on Nov 14, 1391 the decapitation of four Franciscan martyrs. The execution happened outside Jaffa Gate. The corpses were burned.

John of Edessa, martyr. See: Cyrus and Johannes.

John of Egypt. Sept. 20, 310. (AA.SS.)

John of Emesa, companion of Symeon Salos. Symeon and John were from Syria. They came to Jerusalem and lived in the monastery of St. Gerasimus west of the Jordan. Symeon and John passed 40 years in the desert. Symeon travelled to Emesa. There he feigned stupidity, and earned the nickname of 'the fool'. He was born round 522 and died at the end of the 6th century. John died in the desert. The Greek-Melkite liturgy venerates John on July 21.

John of Frascati. This Carmelite Father laid in 1827 the first stone for the rebuilding of the Convent Stella Maris on Mount Carmel. The Convent was finished in 1836.

John of Kolonia. (in the Greek liturgy on Dec 3). He was born in Nicopolis, Armenia, in 454. He distributed his wealth and built a church. After some years he was consecrated bishop of Kolonia (Akseray, Cappadocia). After nine years he left the diocese and went to the monastery of St. Sabas in the Holy Land, where St. Sabas tested him without knowing who he was. When he was to be ordained to the priesthood, it was revealed that he was a bishop. After the death of St. Sabas, he inhabited a cell in which he stayed for the rest of his life. He died at the age of one hundred and six years.

John of Lamballe, vice-count. This pilgrim witnessed on Nov 14, 1391 the decapitation of the four Franciscans in Jerusalem.

John of Lydda, a priest of Lydda.

John of Mantova (Italy), Blessed. On the feast of the Assumption of Mary, on Aug 15, 1557, this Franciscan preached near the Dome of the Rock. He was arrested and after tortures he apostatized to Islam. He was set free. But twenty days later, he preached again near the Dome of the Rock. Then he was burned alive (1557). The Martyrologium Franciscanum venerates him on Dec 6. (Compare: Junipero).

John of Matha, St., founder of the Trinitarians. He was born at Faucon (Provence), on June 23, 1160; he died at Rome on Dee 17, 1213. His feast is on Feb 8. His alleged connection with Felix de Valois is unhistorical. The Trinitarians ransomed Christians who were carried into slavery in Africa by the Moslems. The AA.SS. mention John of Matha on Nov 4.

John of Naples. The Franciscan Chronicles of the 16th century tell that this Franciscan monk went from Jerusalem to Gaza, in 1370 in order to preach the Gospel, and that he was martyred. (Barthé1emy de Pise,, Conf., I)

John Sunason of Knardorp (Denmark). He was of the house of Fionie, and a cousin of Aki Hvitastikson, who led the Danish crusaders in 1191. Johan was one of the seven sons of Suni of Knardorp. In 1197 John started for the Holy Land. He died there in 1202, and was buried at Jerusalem. The guardian of the Holy Sepulchre wrote in 1203 about him to King Vaidemar. An inscription in the church of Sord recalls the memory of John Sunason.

St. John de Tire. The actual El Tira (Tirat Carmel) was in Crusader days the Greek abbey of St. John de Tire. It is near the shore at the foot of Mount Carmel.

John of Thebes (Egypt) = John of Choziba, bishop.

John of Würzburg (Germany). He visited Jerusalem in 1161. He wrote in 1165 'Descriptio Terrae Sanctae'.

John Abba, Abbot of Dabra Libanos, and a very large number of believing monks became martyrs through the soldiers of the Muslims. (Ethiopian Syn. Magabit 27 (March 7 - April 5).

John the Almoner. In the Greek liturgy his feast is on Nov 12. John was born in Amathus, Cyprus, in 560. He was married and while still a lay man, he was chosen to be patriarch (610-619) of Alexandria. He founded hospitals and helped the poor. At the time of the Persian invasion in Egypt, he retired to Cyprus where he died in 619. He was the original patron-saint of the Order of St. John at Jerusalem, later the Knights of Malta. John died on the feast of Menas, the 11th of November 619. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has his feast on Nov 11. The Ethiopian Synaxarium has on Takhshash 1: Abba John built the Church of Sergius and Bacchus, the holy martyrs, and also the church of Abukir and the church of John in the inner wall of Mesr (Cairo). John built also the church of St. Mark the evangelist, in the city of Alexandria. During the days of John a great famine, which lasted for three years, occurred. John was careful for the poor, and he used to give them silver and bread twice a week. He sat upon the throne of Mark the evangelist for nine years, and he died in peace. Salutation to Archbishop John with whom, on the day of his death, is associated the Patriarch Athanasius. - John the Almoner has an altar in the Armenian Gallery that faces Calvary.

John bishop (?) of Gaza. St. He is commemorated in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on Miyazya 11 (Eight month, April 6-May 5).

John, bishop of Madaba. In the church of Lot and Procopius at Khirbet el-Mekhayyat (town of Nebo), a Greek inscription of 6 lines in the floor reads: 'At the time of the most Holy and most Saintly bishop John, your holy place was built and finished by its priest and sacristan Barichas in the month of November in the sixth indiction... ' John was the successor of Sergios. John was bishop of Madaba in November 602.

John Bosco, Italian, St. (1815-1888). He came twice to the Holy Land, the second time at the end of his life. He founded the Salesian Fathers and the Salesian Sisters. Both groups have houses in the Holy Land. John Bosco cooperated in Palestine with Belloni Antonio. The feast of John Bosco is on Jan 31.

John Calabrese, Blessed, martyr. Peter Sagara of Spain, and John Calabrese of Calabria (Italy) and Baptist of Imola (Italy) accompanied an Abyssinian prince on his return from Jerusalem to Ethiopia. Peter Sagara fell sick in Cairo. The two other Franciscans continued the journey. After 11 months they arrived at Bazar, the residence of the Ethiopian king. But the king had died and was succeeded by his son Alexander, who was against the Latins. Therefore the two Franciscans were obliged to return. On the return, or in Jerusalem, John Calabrese was murdered between 1483 and 1485. The Franciscan Martyrology commemorates him on January 13.

John Cantius, St., theologian. He was born in 1390, he died at Cracow (Poland) on Dec 24, 1473. Feast on Oct 20 in Mart. Rom. He made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and he journeyed several times to Rome. He was buried in the Church of St. Anne in Cracow.

John Capistran, St. His feast is on Oct 23. He visited Palestine about 1439-1440. - A picture on a copperplate (25 x 20 cm) in the Museum at the Convent of the Flagellation, Via Dolorosa, Jerusalem, represents St. John Capistran. - John Capistran contributed to the victory of the Christian armies over the Turks in the battle of Belgrad (1456). In 1457 Pope Callixt III, in order to remember this victory, proclaimed the Feast of the Transfiguration as universal for the Church and fixed its date on Aug 6.

John Chrysostom, St. He sent legates to Palestine in or round 405. (AA.SS. Sept 14; Feb 3)

John the Deacon. Simon the Fool (died after 552) was buried in a foreign grave. John the Deacon and his companions planned to bury Simon the Fool into a honourable tomb, in the 6th century. As John the Deacon opened the grave, he found it empty. The Lord had exalted Simon the Fool! (Patr. Graeca 93, 1741-1747)

John the Deacon, martyr. He accompanied the Empress Eudocia to Jerusalem. He was beheaded by Theodosius II (408-450).

John, Duke of Lancaster. Came to Holy Land in 1392. His Antiphonaries (45) in Museum Flagellation.

John Eteo, martyr. This Franciscan was from Spain. Together with Gundisalvus, he was imprisoned in Jerusalem. And there he was martyred in 1366. In Martyrologium Franciscanum: April 11.

John the Eunuch. He fled in 429-430 from Constantinople to Jerusalem, together with Peter the Iberian.

John, ex-prefect. Two Greek inscriptions in the monastery of the Lady Mary remember him: the entrance to the large hall has the text:... and the preservation and succour of John, the most glorious ex-prefect... In the large hall is the second inscription: 'O Christ our God, be thou the protection and succour of Lord John, most glorious ex-prefect, and of his blessed house, through the prayers of the Saints. Amen. '

John Fekru. He lived in a cave near the river Arnon on the east shore of the Dead Sea, together with this friend, Simon the Fool. It was round 552. (AA.SS. Johannis ad Mare Rubrum, St. July 2, July 21) John and Simon were from Syria.

John Francis of Arzignano (Italy). He was born in 1518. In 1568 he was in Aleppo; then he was named Custos of the Holy Land. In Sept 1570 he was at Nicosia, Cyprus. This town was conquered by the Turks and John was sold as a slave. He was freed and returned to Jerusalem. In 1571 he was in Rome, he died in Vicenza in 1589. The book 'Il libro d'oro' mentions 1598 as the year of his death.

John Gongora, Blessed. He was born in Carmona, Andalusia (Spain). King Philip II (1556-1598) planned to nominate him a governor in America. But John joined the clergy. He travelled to the Holy Land, and after his return he entered the Franciscan Order. He died 1578, July 2, on the feast of the Visitation of Mary. The Mart. Franciscanum remembers him on July 2.

John, the Hermit. He lived in the monastery of St. Chariton, where he died in the beginning of the ninth cent. (Melkite liturgy, April 19)

John James Fernandez, martyr. Born in Moire, Galicia in Spain, in 1808. He came in 1859 to the Custody of the Holy Land. He was martyred by the Druses at Damascus on July 10, 1860.

John Martinozzi, Blessed. Born in Toscana (Italy). He was a missionary of the Holy Land, and he worked in Cairo. In the month of April 1345 he was martyred. Mart. Franc. venerates him on April 15.

John, Martyr, disciple of Cyrus the monk, martyred in Alexandria. He is remembered on Jan 30.

John, Metropolitan of Caesarea, Palestine. He ordained in 395 Porphyrius as bishop of Gaza.

John of the Monastery of Seridon. He was a contemporary of Barsanuphius, and he had the power of prophecy. John participated in the literary efforts of Barsanuphius in the monastery of Seridon near Gaza. Barsanuphius died in 540. The Greek liturgy venerates John on Feb 6.

John, a monk. In the Palestinian-Georgian calendar, May 27.

John, a monk of Jerusalem. He travelled round 960 to Calabria. (Vita S. Eliae Spelaeotae, c. 1X, n. 62) (AA.SS. Sept 11).

John of the 'Gospel of Gold'. He was from Rome. He asked his father Trabius to make him a gospel of gold. John read in it always. A certain monk on his way to Jerusalem, came to John. When this monk returned from Jerusalem, he took up his abode in the house of Trabius, according to custom. John and the monk travelled to the monastery wherein the monk lived. After a certain time John, now wearing ragged garments, returned to his parents' house, and lived in his father's courtyard. John gave to his mother the Gospel of gold, the mother showed it to her husband. John confessed: 'I am your son John'. He asked to be buried in his rags. (Ethiopian Synaxarium, 16th day of the month Hamle)

John, brother of Porphyrius. Tombstone (6) Museum Flagellation.

John, the Hegumen, St. On Jan 29 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. He is not identified. - Perhaps he is John, hegumen of St. Sabas, who signed a petition against the Monothelites. The petition was addressed to Pope Martin and was presented at the Council of the Lateran in 649.

John, the Hesychast. St., bishop (48112 to 49011) of Colonia in Armenia. Afterwards he became a monk and recluse in St. Sabas Monastery, he died on Jan 8, 559. The Georgian calendar has his feast on Jan 8; Synaxaries of the Greek Church have it on Dec 7, and sometimes on Dec 3, 8, 9. John the Hesychast is also called John of Colonia in Armenia. John helped St. Sabas in founding the monastery Castellion. (Hyrcania, Khirbet el Mird).

John Paleolaurites. This hermit went to Palestine and finally settled in the monastery of St. Chariton in the wilderness of Judaea. The monastery (laura) of St. Chariton was named the Old Laura (palaios). Therefore for John the surname Paleolaurites, he who lived in the old laura (of St. Chariton). John died in the beginning of the 9th century. The Melkite liturgy has his feast on April 19.

John, the Physician. Jerusalemite Armenian monk, who in 879 is known to have translated from Greek into Armenian, Oribasius and other medical works. (Hovespian, Archbishop Karekin: Colophons of Manuscripts, Vol 1, 1951, p. 82)

John, the Presbyter. In the Church of the Apostles in Madaba, a Greek inscription of 6 lines in the floor reads: 'Lord, accept the offerings of those who have brought and who bring gifts to the Church of the Apostles, in memory of the presbyter John by the zeal of the deacon Anastasios'. (Martin Noth, Die Mosaikinschriften der Apostel-kirche in Madaba, Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palest i na-Verei n s, 84, 1968, p. 136)

John Ristori, confessor. According to tradition, this Franciscan visited Palestine, he returned to Siena (Italy), and died there in 1402. His memory is on Feb 15.

John Scolarios. John Scolarios has his feast on Jan 4 in the Georgian calendar. Cyril of Scythopolis mentions two Johns, who were hegumenoi and scholars of St. Sabas. The first was appointed by St. Sabas as hegumenos of the monastery Scolarios (at Muntar). John Scolarios died in January 542 or 543. - The second John was hegumenos of the New Laura in 554. The New Laura was begun by rebel monks in, 508.

John, the Silent (Johannes Silentiarius), St. He lived in St Sabas, round 490. He is identified with St. John Hesychast. He declined to reveal to his companions that the was a bishop (at the age of 38, in 481, he was ordained as bishop of Colonia in Armenia). Later he settled in Wadi En Nar (en-Nur), opposite to the laura of St. Sabas. John died in 558, at the age of 104 years.

John, the son of Xenophon. In the Greek liturgy his feast is on Jan 26. John was the younger son of Xenophon. John studied in Beirut. The illness of his father compelled him to return to Constantinople. Xenophon recovered, and John together with Arcadius, who was his elder brother, sailed to Beirut. They were shipwrecked and after a miraculous escape they went to Palestine, where they lived in a cave near the monastery of St. Sabas. Both brothers lived in the 6th century.

John, the Theologian. In the Greek liturgy on May 8. He was a Galilean fisherman and the brother of James the Greater. John was called by Jesus Christ and became known as the disciple whom Jesus loved. In later years he was exiled to Patmos. His last years he spent in Ephesus where he died at an advanced age.

Assumption of John. The Melkite liturgy has his Assumption on Sept 26. John, the Theologian, is identified with the author of the fourth Gospel (Gospel of John) and bears as emblem the eagle.

John Vercelli. Dominican Father, Latin Patriarch in Acre, 1278-1279.

John XXIII, Pope (1958-1963). As a seminarist, he came on pilgrimage to the Holy Land, round 1909. He reformed the liturgical calendar in 1960.

John Zuaze, Blessed. He was born in Medina del Campo, Spain. He entered the Franciscan Order in Vallodolid. In 1539 he came to Italy, and in 1550 he joined the Mission of the Holy Land. John Zuaze was accompanied by an Italian lay brother, Alexander John. From Alexandria, they came to Cairo where they preached. Both were arrested. A delegate of the king of France obtained their liberation, but in the meantime John Zuaze had died in the prison in 1551. The Franciscan Martyrology venerates him on Jan 4.

Johns C. N. He examined in 1934-1940 the Herodian repairs and construction of Phasael Tower (David's Tower) in the Citadel of David at Jerusalem.

Johnson, Lady. Widow of Johnson, who was the 36th President of the U.S. (Johnson died in 1973). Lady Johnson visited the Holy Land in July 1976.

Jojik Shushan Marin. In the Russian Convent grounds on the Mount of Olives is a tomb cave over three tomb-niches. The mosaic inscriptions which are over the niches, are in Armenian. They mention: Jojik, Shushan, Marin. It is generally assumed that the three tombs belong to Armenian princesses, who had patronized church construction on the Mount of Olives in the 5th/6th century.

Joly Etienne. This Frenchman came to the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem in 1856. He was ordained as a priest on Dec 17, 1859.

Jonah, St. Prophet. He was from Geth-Hepher in Galilee. He worked during the reign of king Jeroboam II (786-746) in Israel. He received a commission from Yahweh to preach in Ninive. To evade this task, he sailed to Tarshish, but the ship was threatened by a great storm. By lot the blame fell upon Jonah and he was thrown overboard. After three days Jonah was washed ashore. He then preached in Ninive and the city repented. - 'The sign of Jonah' (Mt 12, 39-41) is slightly modified in Lk 11, 29-32. The 'Book of Jonah' is named after the hero who bears the name Jonah. It is a narrative. Jonah is the fifth in the collection of the 12 short prophetic books (Minor Prophets). The commemoration of Jonah is on Sept 21 in Mart. Rom.

Tomb of Jonah: Martyrologium Romanum mentions: in terra Saar. In Halhul, 6 Kms north of Hebron, the Moslems venerate the tomb of Nebi Yunis. The Jews ascribe the tomb to the prophet Gad and to the prophet Nathan. - Another tomb of Jonah is venerated in el Meschhed, which is about 7 Kms north of Nazareth. Meschhad, the ancient Gath-Hepher, is the birthplace of Jonah. Jews identify Geth-Hepher with the place Geth near Lydda (Jeremias, Heiligengrctiber)

The whale of Jonah. The Ethiopian Synaxarium mentions: On this day, the seventeenth day of the month of Hamle, Jonah came forth from the belly of the whale.

The death of Jonah. The Ethiopian Synaxarium reads: On the 25th day of the month Maskaram died prophet Jonah. This holy man was the son of the widow of Beth-Sarapta of Sidon, whom Elijah the prophet raised from the dead. And he followed Elijah and ministered unto him. -The Rev. W. M. Thomson mentions is his work 'The Land and the Bible' (1905) on the coast of South Lebanon the shrine of Neby Yunas. North of the shrine is a khan; to the south is a mausoleum. It is venerated by Moslems and Druses.

Fasting of Jonah. A commemoration of the repentance of the habitants of Ninive is on the 28th of Feb. The 'fasting of the Ninivites' in the Oriental Churches was on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday after the Sunday of the Pharisee and the publican, in the third week before the beginning of the Fast of Lent. - In an appendix the Palestinian-Georgian calendar records another fast on July 13, 14, 15. It was a complete fast of three days and three nights.

Jonas of Mar Sabas. He was the father of Theodorus Graptus and of Theophanes Graptus of Mar Sabas. He served as a priest in the 9th century, and joined the monastery of St. Sabas where he died after many years of service. In the Greek liturgy on Sept 21.

Jonas of Sorö. An inscription on a tombstone that was found in the 19th century in the church of Sorö (Denmark), revealed that a certain monk Jonas pilgrimated two times to Jerusalem, three times to Rome and once to Santiago de Compostella.

Jordanes. Archimandrite who wrote to St. John Damascenus.

Jordanus: In the house of Jordanus, the priest, in Lachernan, at St. Michael, in the church of the Mother of God, dedication on Oct 5. (Georgian liturgy). - Jordanus (Jordanes?) non-identified.

Jordanus, Blessed. He came to the Holy Land in 1237. He was magister generalis FF. Praedicatorum. (Thomas Cantipr., Vita S. Lutgardis i, III, cA, n. 2; AA.SS. June 16) - In the 'Vita B. Jordani, c. 1X, n. 79' is mentioned the zeal of the Dominican Fathers (FF Praedicatorum) for the Holy Land in the 13th century. (AA.SS. Feb 13)

Jordanus, patriarch of Jerusalem, round 1045 (Acta Sanctorum)

Jorius, St. Travelled before 1033 from Sinai to Béthune (France). (AA.SS. July 26)

Josaphat: see Barlaam and Josaphat.

Joscelinus, comes Viennensis. Came to Palestine round 960. (AA.SS. Jan 17)

Joseph, St., husband of the Blessed Virgin Mary and father of Jesus Christ by legal ties. The Franciscan community of Nazareth celebrates on March 19 Holy Mass in the Church of St. Joseph. Tradition claims that this church is built over the house of Joseph. Other places in the Holy Land recall the presence of Joseph. In Bethlehem, he has two chapels: one near the grotto of the Nativity; a second, 200 m. east of the church is the so-called 'house of Joseph'. El-Bireh, 15 Kms north of Jerusalem, is believed to have been the first stopping place for caravans going from Jerusalem to Galilee, and therefore the place where Mary and Joseph missed the 12-year old Jesus and therefore returned to Jerusalem. (Luke 2, 41). They found Jesus in the Temple. In the same Temple of Jerusalem, Jesus was presented 40 days after his birth, and now the boy of 12 years was found 'listening to the teachers'.

Joseph, patron of the Universal Church. This feast is celebrated on Wednesday after the second Sunday after Easter.

Joseph in the Holy Mass. By decree of Pope John XXIII, dated Nov 13, 1962, the name of Joseph was inserted in the prayer Communicantes of the Roman Canon in the Holy Mass.

Joseph, the carpenter, and his children. The Ethiopian Synaxarium on Hamle 26 reads: When the time came for Joseph to depart from this transient world, he called to him his other sons, that is to say, Justus and Judah, and Josa, and Jacob and his three daughters.... and they laid him in the grave of Jacob, his father, in the tenth (?) -(perhaps twentieth?) year of the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Joseph, Abba. A certain Abba Joseph was buried in the church of Samaya (i.e. heaven) which is called Dabra Tabor. This Abba Joseph is saluted in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on Genbot 19.

Joseph of Arimathea. He was the disciple who after the crucifixion begged from Pontius Pilate the body of Christ and laid it in his own tomb. He is said to have been sent by Philip to Britain where he founded the first church of Glastonbury. The 'history of the Grail’ is connected with Joseph of Arimathea. The Latin Patriarchate and the Franciscans 'in the Holy Land commemorate his feast on March 17. The feast is celebrated in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre on Calvary, and also in the Franciscan convent of Ram]eh. The city of Ramleh is identified by a christian tradition with Arimathea. Some Byzantine writers identify Arimathea with the village of Rentis. In the Crusader period Rentis had the Abbey of St. Joseph of Arimathea. - Greek liturgy venerates Joseph on July 31. Georgian liturgy mentions him on Aug 30, and on Aug 31: Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus. The Martyrologium Romanum venerates Joseph on March 17.

Tomb of Joseph in the Holy Sepulchre. In the Syrian chapel which is behind the Rotunda of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, a low door on the left leads to a Jewish sepulchral chamber. It is commonly called the tomb of Joseph of Arimathea.

Joseph, 14th bishop of Jerusalem, Saint, 2nd century. (AA.SS.)

Joseph, one of the 70 disciples (Luke 10, 1). Joseph, the Just, a candidate with Matthias for the place of Judas Iscarioth (Acts 1, 23). In the Martyrologium Romanum he is listed as Blessed on July 20. This Joseph was surnamed Barsabbas or Justus.

Joseph, a son of Photine, the Samaritan woman (Jn 4, 11-42).

Joseph of Tiberias, count, confessor. According to his biographer, Saint Epiphany of Salamis, Joseph was born in Tiberias near the lake of Galilee, at the end of the third century. He died between 355 and 380. Joseph was nominated a count by the Emperor Constantine the Great. With the permission of the Emperor, Joseph wished to build a church in Tiberias, in Scythopolis and on other places. The Martyrologium Romanurn mentions his death in 356, at the age of 70 years. Greek synaxaries have his name. He has his feast on July 22. - Joseph of Tiberias told Saint Epiphany that the Jews did not permit Samaritans or Christians (Gentile christians) in four places: Sepphoris, Nazareth, Tiberias, Capharnaum. Joseph wished to erect churches in these localities, but there is no evidence that he ever succeeded in doing so.

Joseph, priest of the sanctuary on Mount of Olives. There an Angel appeared to the Virgin Mary and gave her a palm to announce her death. - A marble slab (95 cm high, 51 cm broad, 12 cm thick) of the grave of Joseph priest is in the Museum at the Convent of the Flagellation, Jerusalem. (Clermont-Ganneau, Recueil d'Arch. Or. V, pp. 164-165) (See: Josepios).

Joseph, the patriarch (Joseph of Egypt of the Old Testament). Joseph and Moses, the great prophet were commemorated in the Foundation of Flavia on Sept 4, according to the Palestinian calendar. - The tomb of Joseph the patriarch is venerated in Sichem. (Josue 24, 32) The bones of Joseph which the people of Israel brought up from Egypt, were buried at Shechem, in the portion of ground that Jacob bought from the sons of Hamor, who was the father of Shechem, for a hundred pieces of money. This ground became an inheritance of the descendants of Joseph. Some 200 m. north of the Well of Jacob (Bir Yacoub), a white dome marks the tomb of Joseph. The Arabs call it Qabr Yousef. Yousef is venerated by Jews, Samaritans, Moslems and Christians. Incense-sticks are burned in his well.

Joseph, son of the Jew Mahawe. One day Joseph saw Christian children learning from a book, and he asked his mother to let him join them. She permitted him to do so, and Joseph learned all the Christian books. When the father of Joseph heard of this, he cast Joseph into the oven and shut the door upon him. But the angel of God extinguished the fire and cooled the oven. Thereup his father Mahawe believed on Christ, together with the men of his house. Joseph died at the age of 28 years. According to a picture which is in the Church of St. George, the Virgin Mary predicted that Joseph should die on the third day, at the third hour. The Ethiopian Synaxarium salutes Joseph on Ter 28.

Joseph II, Patriarch of Jerusalem (980-983).

Josephine de Jérusalem. see: Rumène Joséphine de Jérusalem.

Josepios, priest. In 1902 a Greek inscription (8th/9th century) was discovered on Mount of Olives: 'On the day of Pentecost was buried the just Josepios, priest in the newly built sanctuary of the appearing Angel'. Is here meant Josepios (Joseph priest) in the sanctuary on the west slope of Mount of Olives, where an Angel announced to Mary her coming death and reached her a palmbranch (el Thamir)? (Clermont-Ganneau, Rec. d'arch. or., V, 164169 and 182) (Thomsen, Zeitschrift des Palastina Vereins, 1921, Nr 158). The stone with the epitaph (Nr 12) is in the Museum of the Convent of the Flagellation, Via Dolorosa, Jerusalem. (Il Museo della Flageilazione in Gerusalemme, note illustrative di Bagatti. 1939, p. 19) - The palm-branch is the sign of the approaching death. Two palmbranches, bent towards each other, forming like a triumphal arch, are carried before the funeral procession of a Muslim. They are planted on the grave.

Joses. In Mark 6, 3 we read: 'is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon, and are not his sisters here with us?' In Mt 13, 42 the name is Joseph; in some manuscripts of Mark the name is Joset.

Joset. See: Joses (Mark 6, 3).

Joshua, successor of Moses and hero of the book of Joshua (Jos). Joshua guarded the tabernacle (Ex 33, 11). He was one of the men sent to explore Canaan before the entrance of the Israelites, and with Caleb, he resisted the timidity of the other scouts (Num 13, 1114, 38). Joshua conquered Jericho, and made a tribal covenant assembly at Shechem. A Jewish legend (it is adopted by Professor Sigmund Freud) means that Joshua has eliminated (killed) Moses, because Moses did not have the strength to cross the Jordan. The fact that the tomb of Moses is unknown, suggests an elimination by his rival Joshua. (so the explanation by Freud). - The commemoration of Joshua was at the Pool Probatica on Sept 2. The Martyrologium Romanum has the feast of Joshua and Gedeon on Sept 1. The Ethiopian Synaxarium has the birth of Joshua on the 29th of the month Takhshash.

Tomb of Joshua. The Old Testament (Judges 2, 9) tells: 'And Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of the Lord, died at the age of one hundred and ten years. And they buried him within the bounds of his inheritance in Timnath-heres, in the hill country of Ephraim, north of the mountain of Ga'ash'. - Khirbet Tibne correspondens to the ancient Timnat-Sera (Thimnath-Sare). A tomb, called Qubbet el Hindi, used to be pointed out by Moslems as the tomb of Joshua. Another tomb is indicated as the tomb of Nun; another as that of nebi Kefil (Caleb). (J. Jeremias, Heiligengräber, S. 40) But Samaritans claim that Joshua is buried in Kefr Haris. His tomb is supposedly in the mosque.

Joshua and Gedeon. Saints. Their memory is on Sept 1 in Mart. Rom. Joshua appears as a commander and as Moses' attendant, he led Israel in the battle against Amalek (Ex 17, 9-14). He accompanied Moses during his ascent and descent of Mt. Sinai (Ex 24, 13; 32, 17-18), and was placed in charge of security at the tent of meeting (Ex 33, 11). Moses appointed Joshua as his successor with the duty to conquer and apportion the land among the Israelites. Joshua himself received Timnath-Serah in the hills of Ephraim as his lot (Jos 19, 50). After his death at the age of 110, he was buried there (Jos 24, 30; Judges 2, 9). (Another tomb, close to the right wayside from Bir Zeit to Abud, is indicated as 'Tomb of Joshua')

Jourdain, Maitre. He built between 1160 and 1180 the belfry south of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. The belfry lost its topmost storey in 1549. Since 1719 the belfry is capped with red tiles.

Juda, father of Pope Evarist. Juda was a native of Bethlehem. He emigrated to Antioch. There he had a son, who became later pope, from 100 to 109. This son, pope Evarist, became a martyr under Trajan the Emperor (97-117).

Judas, the traitor. The Ethiopian Synaxarium has on the 26th day of the month Magabit, the seventh month (March 7-April 5): On this day Judas betrayed the Lord, and he received the price, thirty pieces of silver, as the prophets foretold. - Some hold that Judas Iscarioth came from Khirbet Qouretein (or Queriyot), commonly identified with Carioth Hesbon, about 15 Kms south of Hebron. Another locality, Carioth (Qaryut) about 4 Kms north of Shiloh, alongside the frontier with Samaria, is indicated as the village of Judas Iscarioth. -A third opinion places the native village of Judas in Galilee, southwest of the Lake of Galilee.

Jude. Matthew 13, 55 mentions Jude among the brethren of the Lord.

Jude, the Apostle. Luke 6, 16 calls Jude (Judas) the son of James. Matthew 10, 3 replaces the name Jude by Thaddeus (or Lebbaeus, in some manuscripts).

Jude, the author of the Epistle of Jude. The author calls himself the brother of James. Perhaps Jude the author is to be identified with Jude the Apostle. Jude the Apostle preached in Armenia and suffered martyrdom in the town of Ararat in Armenia. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has his feast on Jan 23, May 14, May 22 and Aug 30. Greek Synaxaries add generally on May 22: Judas the Apostle, the Zealot.

Jude (Judas), one of the 70 disciples. (Luke 10, 1).

Jude, a Christian of Damascus, to whose house Paul was taken after the vision and where Paul was baptized by Ananias (Acts 9, 11). Generally the name is Judas.

Jude (Judas). He was sent with Paul, Barnabas, and Silas to Antioch with the letter of the council of Jerusalem. (Acts 15, 22).

Jude-Quiriacus (Judas Quiriacus), 15th bishop of Jerusalem, round 134-148, Saint. In 'Acta Apocrypha', he is mentioned on May 4.

Judith, the heroine of the Book Judith. Holofernes, an Assyrian general, besieged Bethulia. Judith entered the camp of Holofernes, and flattered him by promising him victory. Holofernes invited Judith to a banquet with him alone in his tent. Judith cut off the head of the drunken Holofernes, and took it to Bethulia. The Israelites routed the leaderless Assyrians. - Judith is named among the Just of the Old Testament, on the first Sunday of Advent in the Eastern Churches. Her death is commemorated by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on Maskaram 10. - Bethulia is not identified.

Judith, countess of Bavaria, and Saint Razzo, comes Andechsensis. They visited Palestine round 940. (AA.SS. Oct 8) (Paulus, Vita S. Erardi Ratispon., lib. 11, c. II, n. 6; Innoc. Keferloherus, Vita S. Razzonis, n. 4; Acta Sanctorum June 19)

Judith, St. She came to Palestine, either in the 9th century, or in the 11th century, together with St. Salomes. (AA.SS. June 29)

Jules of Malta. This Carmelite Father reoccupied in 1803 the small house of the Carmelite Fathers in Haifa, and began there the Latin Parish.

Julian Calendar. It was introduced by Julius Caesar in 45 BC. This calendar is still in use in the liturgy of the Greek-Orthodox Church in Jerusalem. The Gregorian calendar was promulgated in 1582, when the day after Oct 4 became October 15. - For the civilian life, the Greek-Orthodox christians follow the Gregorian calendar.

Julian Sabas, St. monk. He was born at Heliopolis (Baalbek) in Lebanon round 300; he died 377 or 380, in Osrhoene. Theodoret says that Julian lived in a hermit's cell on the banks of the Euphrates, and later in a cave in the desert of Osrhoene, between Antioch and the Euphrates, where he gathered a group of disciples. He went to Sinai. Probably he passed through the Holy Land. He built a church on the rock where God was said to have appeared to Moses. In the reign of Emperor Valens (364-378) he was in Antioch and refuted the Arians, and then returned to Osrhoene. Sometimes he is identified with Julian the Monk, and with Julian the Hermit. ln the Greek synaxaries he is commemorated on Jan 17. The Roman Martyrology has his feast on Jan 17. The AA.SS. (Oct 18) mention that Julianus Sabas went to Antioch in 379.

Julian, the Apostate. (361-363) He permitted in 363 the Jews to rebuild their temple at Jerusalem.

Julian, the Hermit: See Julian Sabas.

Juliane of Ptolemais, Palestine. Together with her brother Paul, she suffered martyrdom during the reign of Emperor Aurelianus (270-275). Feast Aug 17 in Mart. Rom., in Greece on March 4.

Julianus St., confessor. Memory on March 23 in Mart. Rom. He is commemorated in Caesarea.

Julianus, 20th bishop of Jerusalem, 2nd cent. (AA.SS.)

Julianus, 24th bishop of Jerusalem, 2nd cent. (AA.SS.)

Julianus, Martyr in Palestine, 1st-4th cent. AA.SS. Feb 17.

Church of St. Julianus, martyr. Theognius came to Jerusalem in 454-455. He accompanied a lady who was named Flavia. This lady was building at that time on the Mount of Olives a monastery and a church of the holy Julianus, martyr. - Julianus martyr is mentioned on June 3 by the Palestinian-Georgian calendar.

Julianus, martyr in Palestine, 3rd/4th cent. AA.SS. Jan 29.

Julianus Adamus of Salerno (Italy). He was martyred by the Turks in the 16th cent. His feast is on May 26. (AA.SS.)

Julianus, Alexius, Jacobus et socii Carmelitae. Martyrs in Jerusalem in 740 (AA.SS. Aug g).

Junianus. He came, together with Guillelmus, to Palestine in the 12th century. (AA.SS. April 20)

Junias. According to the Arabo-Jacobite Synaxarium (P. O. 16, 405407) Junias was from Eleutheropolis (Beth-Guvrin). It should be this Junias, who is remembered by St. Paul in his Letter to the Romans (16, 7). Junias should have joined Andronikus. Junias should have been buried at Eleutheropolis in a cave. His feast is on May 18. (See also: Junius)

Junipero (Giunipero). This Franciscan monk suffered martyrdom in the court which is before the entrance of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre in 1547 or 1557.

Juniperus, from Sicily, Franciscan. Without year (Feb 23) (AA.SS.)

Junius. The Melkite liturgy has Junius, together with Andronicus, on May 17.

Junot. General Junot and General Kleber and their commander Napoleon were at the Latin Convent of Nazareth in 1799. On April 8, 1799 Junot stopped at Loubieh, with 300 men the march of the vanguard of the Turkish army. This fact is known as 'the battle of Nazareth'. Loubieh is northeast of Kfar Kana (Cana) on the left side of the way Cana-Tiberias.

Justa. Name of the Canaanite (or Syrophoenician) woman who came to Jesus on behalf of her daughter. (Mt 15, 22; Mk 7, 25). The name of the daughter was Bernice.

Justin, martyr. In the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on May 16. (Probably to be identified with Justin, the Philosopher and martyr)

Justin, the Philosopher and martyr. In the Greek liturgy on June 1. He was born in Flavia Neapolis (Nablus) in Samaria, in 100. He belonged to a pagan Greek family. He became a Christian when he was about 33. His writings include 'The Apology' and 'The Dialogue'. Justin stayed in Rome on two occasions. He was martyred in Rome with five men and a woman. The contemporary account of his examination by the prefect of Rome, Rusticus, is a genuine historical document. His martyrdom was in 165. Rom. Mart. June 1. The Melkite liturgy mentions on June 1: Justin, the Philosopher and his companions Chariton, Charitas, Eupistes, Hierax, Paion and Liberian.

Justinian Emperor (Justinian the Great, Justinian I, ruled 523. 565) He was born in Tauresium, Illyricum, in 483. On the death of Justin I, he ascended the imperial throne, after having married Theodora in 523. The 'Corpus Juris' of Justinian remained the chief law-book of the Roman world until the days of Leo the Isaurian (717-740). As a defender of the Chalcedonian creed, Justinian was always concerned to unify his empire theologically. He built Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, the monastery of St. Catherine in Sinai, and many churches in the Holy Land. The throne passed to his nephew, Justin I, in 565. Justinian I died on Nov 14, 565. The Greek liturgy has his feast on Nov 15. Georgian Synaxaries commemorate him on Aug 3. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar mentions him on Nov 15 and 16.

Justus, Joseph Justus, Barnabas (Barsabas). According to Acts 14, 14 Barnabas and Paulus preached in Lystra. The people of Lystra called Barnabas Zeus, and Paul Hermes. - Joseph Justus, who was surnamed by the apostles Barnabas (which means Son of Encouragement), a levite of Cyprus, sold a field and brought the money to the apostles (Acts 4, 36). - Joseph, called Barsabas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias were put forward, but the lot fell on Matthias (Acts 1, 21-26)

Justus, one of the 70 (72) disciples. He is named in the Greek together between Joseph and Barnabas (70 or 72 disciples). Joseph and Justus and Barnabas are considered as three persons, to form the number of 72 disciples (Luke 10, 1). Justus was bishop of Eleutheropolis, according to the Greek list.

Justus, 10th or 11th bishop of Jerusalem, 2nd century. He is mentioned, together with Seneca, who was the 10th or l lth bishop.

Justus and Abundus, martyrs in Jerusalem, 283-284, Dec 14. (AA.SS. Mart. Bedae: Mart.,)

Justus, St., bishop of Lyon, Viator St., and Antiochus, priest. These three men visited Palestine round 385. (Vitae duae S. Justi; Vita S. Viatoris, n. 71-72) (AA.SS. Sept 2; Oct 21)

Jutta, St. The husband of St. Jutta visited Palestine in the 13th century. (AA.SS. May 5)

Juvenal of Jerusalem, bishop or patriarch from 418 or 422 to 458. He participated at the Councils of Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451). His see included Palestina prima, Palestina secunda and Palestina tertia. Juvenal was forced to fight against Nestorianism and Monophysitism in Palestine. Once he had to flee to Constantinople, but with the help of Emperor Marcian (450-457), he was able to pacify the contending parties. He returned to Jerusalem in 453, and died there in 458. - Juvenal and his successor, Anastasius, are remembered in the Church of the Apostles on July 1, according to the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. Greek Synaxaries mention Juvenal on July 2 and July 3. - The lectionary of Latal has on Aug 25 in the Foundation of Juvenal, the deposit of prophet Zachariah and of the three companions in the fiery furnace, Ananias, Azarias, Misael.

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