A. Mertens, "Who was a Christian in the Holy Land?" - Encyclopedia

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Haas Franciscus, Assumptionist lay brother. He was born in Holland. In 1977 he received the award 'Knight (Chevalier) of the Order of Orange-Nassau'. He was then in the Holy Land since 48 years.

Habacuc: see Habakkuk, prophet of the Old Testament.

Habacuc: abbey of the Premonstratensian Order. see Helinus

Habakkuk, prophet. In the Greek synaxaries his feast is on Dec 2. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar mentions Habakkuk on June 19, June 28, July 1, Dec 2. In the Roman Martyrology he is named on Jan 15, together with the Prophet Micah. The Ethiopian synaxarium salutes Habakkuk on Genbot 23 (ninth month, May 6 to June 4), and commemorates him on the 6th of the month Tekemt (=second month, Oct 8- Nov 6).

Finding of his bones. It happened during the reign of Emperor Theodosius the Great (= Theodosius I) (379-395). It is commemorated in the Western Church on Jan 1.

House of Habakkuk. The house of Habakkuk, out of which the prophet was transported by the angel to the city of Babylon to bring food to the prophet Daniel in the den of the lions, was shown on the hight of Tantur near Bethlehem.

Habakkuk and Micah, minor prophets. Jan 15. Their relics were found during the reign of Emperor Theodosius I (379-395). -Another tradition has that the relics of Habakkuk were discovered under Bishop Zebennos of Eleutheropolis in the village of Keile, near Eleutheropolis, about fifty years after the reign of Emperor Theodosius I.

Habakkuk (Anbakom). 'God called the holy man, Abba Anbakom (= Habakkuk) to the convent of our Father Abba Takla Haymanot, in the days of our Father Peter and it was Peter who baptized him, with Christian baptism, with his own hand, and gave him in charge of a teacher, and after this he arrayed him in the garb of a monk. ' Habakkuk was one of the company of the Eleven Learned Fathers. (in the Ethiopian Synaxarium, 21th of Miyazya).

Habib (physician): native name of Christodoulos.

Habsburger Family. Twenty-one members of this family are portraited in the Chapel of the Austrian Hospice in Jerusalem.

Haddad Falk. This first Arab Anglican bishop in Jerusalem was ordained on Feb 2, 1976.

Haddad Daoud Yunan. On Reformation-Day (Oct 31, 1979) he was introduced as the first Arab Lutheran bishop in Jerusalem.

Hademunda, widow. Round 1000 (Acta Sanctorum Nov 11).

Hagar, the slave-wife of Abraham. She is not venerated in the Christian liturgy. Hagar was the mother of Ismael.

Haggai, minor prophet, 6th century BC. He played a part in the life of Jerusalem after the return of the Jews from the Babylonian captivity in the time of Cyrus. In the summer of 520 BC. Haggai and his fellow-prophet Zechariah succeeded in getting work resumed on the destroyed temple. He told the Jews: 'Go up to the hills and bring wood and build the house' (Hag 1, 8). He predicted a day of divine judgment: ' _and the horses and their riders shall go down, every one by the sword of his fellow'(Hag 2, 22). - A tomb of Haggai seems to have been venerated in the valley of Cedron. (J. Jeremias, Heiligengraber in Jesu Umwelt, 1958, S. 72). Actually the Jews venerate a tomb of Haggai on the Mount of Olives. In the so-called Tomb of the Prophets (Qoubour el Anbia) the Jews venerate the burial of the prophets Haggai, Zachariah and Malachi. - The Roman Martyrology has the feast of Haggai and Hosea on July 4; the Melkite liturgy has Haggai on Dec 16; the Armenian liturgy on Dec 16 (and on Dec 4 at the memory of the 12 minor prophets). The Ethiopian Synaxarium salutes Haggai, who was buried in Jerusalem in the tomb of the priests. (Takhshash 20)

Haggeus (Haggai) and Malachy, Prophets. In the tomb of the Prophets on the slope of the Mount of Olives.

Hagiotaphite. Member of the (Hellenic) Confraternity of the Holy Taphos (Sepulchre) in the Greek Orthodox Church. Patriarch Cyril II (1845-1872) was elected in Jerusalem by the Hagiotaphites.

Hagop Pascal. This Armenian in the 19th century served as consul in Jerusalem for the kingdom of Prussia. (Hintlian K. History of the Armenians, p. 62163, note)

Haile Selassie I, emperor of Ethiopia. (1892-1975) He became Emperor in 1930, after 14 years as regent. He visited the Holy Land before 1933. In 1935 he Italians invaded Ethiopia. On May 8, 1936 Haile Salassie arrived with his family in Jerusalem. The Ethiopian national hymn had greeted him upon his arrival in Haifa. After the Second World War he returned to Ethiopia. In 1966, on Oct 12 he came from Beirut via Amman to Jerusalem. He returned via Amman, and via Cairo where he met President Nasser. In 1974 Haile Selassie was deposed from his throne, and he died after an arrest of one year, in 1975. The Jewish people had always special ties with Ethiopia. The connections are from the time of King Salomon and the queen of Saba.

Haimanot (Haymanot) see Takle Haimanot.

Hamilton. He examined EI Aqsa, Basilica of Nativity (1933)

Hanna Carlo. This dragoman (= interpreter) of the French Consulate in Jerusalem helped in 1857 Father Theodore Ratisbonne in buying the arch Ecce Homo in the Via Dolorosa for the construction of a chapel, and of a convent for the Sisters of Sion.

Hannan. In the history of Abgar, which is contained in 'Doctrine of Addai, apostle', Hannan, archivist and scharrir (= secretary) of King Abgar, took the place of Ananias as royal messenger. Hannan found Jesus in the house of Gamaliel. Hannan decided to paint the portrait of Jesus.

Haralamble. see Charalampius, Charalampos.

Haraldus Severus, King of Norway. see Gida.

Harding G. Lankaster. He lived in Jordan from 1932 to 1936. In 1936 he was Chief Curator of Antiquities. He left Jordan in 1956, and published in 1959 'The Antiquities of Jordan'. He excavated in 1949, together with Père de Vaux Cave I and Cave III at Qumran. In Cave III the found two rolls of copper with texts. These copper scrolls are actually in the Museum of Amman.

Harlots, who were converted by St. Marcian. In 472 they came to Palestine. (Vita S. Marciani, auct. Sim. Metaphr., lat. vers., C. VI, n. 24) (AA.SS. Jan 10).

Harmel, Mother, (born 1862 in Val-des-Bois en France). This daughter of the great industrialist founded in 1884 the Jerusalem Convent of the Poor Clares. It is on the left side of the way from Jerusalem to Bethlehem.

Harmel Pierre, minister of Belgium. In an effort to bring peace in the Arab-Israeli conflict, he visited Jerusalem, July 25-29, 1971.

Harmon A. L. He was the architect of Empire State Building. He designed the Y.M.C.A. (Young Men Christian Association) building in West Jerusalem. The Y.M.C.A. building was begun in 1928, and opened in 1933. Its tower has a carillon of bells. - After 1948, when the Arab-Israeli conflict divided Jerusalem in two parts, the Y.M.C.A. built a centre in East Jerusalem on Nablus Road.

Harmon Larry. On Wednesday, Feb 24, 1971 this American student of Spokane (Washington) jumped and danced on the marble slab that covers the tomb of Christ in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. The youth of 21 years was under influence of drugs. His father, who was a lawyer, received permission from the State of Israel to take him back to Spokane, on March 7, 1971. On Thursday, Nov 11, 1971, again under drugs, Larry desecrated the Church of St. Aloysius on the campus of the University of Spokane. He gunned down the sacristan, and wounded a policeman. In the struggle with the police, Larry was killed.

Haroutioun, see Anastase, the Armenian.

Harte Dr. He founded for the Y.M.C.A. the Dr. Harte Hospice at Tiberias.

Hartvik of Bremen, archbishop. He came back from Palestine (1197-1198) over Venice in his archiepiscopal city, with the relics of St. Anne, with the sword that had cut off the ear of Malchus.

Harvey W. By order of the British Mandate, he examined in 1933134 the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, because it had been damaged by an earthquake on July 11, 1927. In 1935 he placed iron scaffoldings. The scaffolding at the southern facade was removed in 1970.

Hathourn I (1224-1269), King of Cilician Armenia. The wooden door in the entrance of the colonnaded nave of the Basilica of the Nativity in Bethlehem was made in 1227 by order of King Hathourn 1. The inscriptions, which are carved on the upper part in Armenian and in Arabic, mention: the door of the Blessed Mother of God was made in the year 676 by the hands of Father Abraham and Father Arakel in the time of Hathum, son of Constantine, King of Armenia.

Healers. Iconography often represents a group of three healers: Cosmas, and his brother Damian, and Luke. Luke is sometimes replaced by Panteleimon or by Christophorus.

Hearts, buried in Jerusalem. Bossi Aurelia, Princess de la Tour d'Auvergne placed the heart of her father in an urn which she placed in the Cloister Pater Noster on Mount of Olives. - The Stuart family buried the heart of Marquis de Bute in 1901 at Dominus Flevit in the ground. The place is marked by an iron cross. - In the Scottish St. Andrew's Church at Jerusalem is buried the heart of a member of the royal family of Scotland.

Heimeradus, priest, St. He visited Palestine before 1016. (Egbertus Hersfeld., Vita S. Heim. c. I, n. 5) (AA.SS. June 28)

Heldradus, Saint. By the help of Heldradus, Italian ships on their return from the first crusade were saved in 1100. (Jacob. Turinettus, Vita S. Heldradi, c. III, n. 25-26) (AA.SS. March 13)

Helen, martyr. She was the daughter of Alpheus the Apostle. (Greek liturgy, May 26)

Helen(a), Saint, Roman Empress, mother of Constantine the Great. She was born 255, she died 330. According to St. Ambrose, she was a servant girl who became the concubine of Constantius Chlorus, was abandoned for political reasons, but was named Augusta (= majestic) by her son Constantine 1 at the beginning of his reign in 306. According to Eusebius, she became a Christian under Constantine's influence and in 324 made one of the first pilgrimages to the Holy Land. She built the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, and the Eleona Church on the top of the Mount of Olives. The story of the finding of the Cross, first mentioned by St. Ambrose, depends on Eusebius. Helena is frequently portrayed with a crown, the model of a church, and the cross and nails; she is honoured as a patron in Trier, Bamberg and Base]. Feast on Aug 18 in Rom. Mart. - Legends ascribe to Helena the foundation of the Thebäer Church in Cologne and others in Xanten and Bonn, and the transfer of relics of St. Matthias and the Holy Garment (= Heiliger Rock) to Trier.

Helena Skedewensis, Saint. She came to Palestine round 1150. (Vita, c. 5-6) (AA.SS. July 31)

Helerius, Blessed. Memory on April 3. Nothing is known about Helerius. Perhaps Helerius is meant in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on April 3.

Helia, junior, St. She visited Palestine in 875. (Vita S. Heliae, c. 11) (AA.SS. Aug 17)

Helinandus, episcopus Laudunensis,. Was in Palestine in 1054. (AA.SS. June 23)

Helinus, seventh abbot of Floreffe (Belgium). He became abbot of the Premonstratensian Abbey of S. Habacuc near Lydda in 1221 (AA.SS. Aug 21)

Heliodorus, St., episcopus Altinensis. He visited Palestine round 381. (Vita, c. I, n. 9; c. II, n. 10) (AA.SS. July 3)

Heliophotus. He belonged to the 300 Palestinians who settled in Cyprus. He lived near the village of Achera, not far from Lefkosia, on the northwest coast of Cyprus. He is commemorated with Anxouthenius, Pamphoditus and Pammegistus in the village of St. Heliophoti, where is a church of the same name. Heliophotus is in the Greek liturgy on July 13.

Hella, bishop of Jerusalem. He travelled to Nicaea in 786. (Ignatius, Vita S. Tarasii, c. V, n. 19) (AA.SS. Feb 25)

Hennesy J. In 1964-1966 he revealed remains of an early gate beneath the actual building of Damascus Gate.

Henoch. See: Enoch.

Henri de Bar (Bar-le-Duc), count. He was killed in the dunes near Gaza on Nov 13, 1239, together with Anseaux de Lille (France).

Henri I, duc de Brabant. After the reconquest (July 2, 1191) of Acre and the reconquest (Oct 1197) of Beyrouth, Henri wrote a letter to the archbishop of Cologne, wherein he expected the reconquest of Jerusalem. (Jerusalem was lost since October 1187).

Henri de Nazareth. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) tried in 1234 to find an agreement between Frederick II and the French barons in Syria. Henri de Nazareth and Philippe de Troyes went to Rome as delegates. They should ask the Pope to annul the interdict which the papal legate Theodoric had laid over Acre.

Henricus Bormensis. He was killed in the crusade in 1147. (AA. SS, Oct 18)

Henricus Cremonensis. He came to Palestine before 1095, together with Albertus, abbas Pontidensis. (AA.SS. Sept 5)

Henricus Zdiko, St., episcopus Olomucensis. He came to Palestine in 113711138. (AA.SS. June 25)

Henry II, King of England (1154-89). He made peace with King Philip of France, and took the Cross in 1188.

Henry of Champagne (Henry II, Henry the Younger, king till 1197). Nephew of Richard I (Richard Coeur de Lion). Henry succeeded (1192-97) Conrad as King of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem at Acre. Conrad was assassinated on April 27, 1192 by the 'Old Man in the Mountains', the leader of the Assassins. The Assassins (or IsmaiIians) lived in the Syrian mountains.

Hoppeneert (in Belgium). See: Wolfram of Heppeneert.

Heptastomus: (May 24 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar.) A laura that was founded by St. Sabas, was called Heptastomos, (Seven founts) in relation to a nearby pit. Is Heptastomus the name of a man, or the name of a laura? (of which the foundation was remembered?)

Heraclides, bishop, 4th century. The nuns in a convent of Eleutheropolis asked for his visit. Heraclides sent from Rome his representative, 'the saint bishop Ephesius'.

Heraclius, brother of George of Choziba. Heraclius lived in the monastery of Kalamon (= reed) on the westside of the Jordan, round 565. (Vita S. Georgii Chozeb., c. I, n. 1, 3; c. II, n. 6-9) Analecta Bollandiana VIl.

Heraclius 1, Byzantine Emperor (610-641). In 614 Chosroes II of Persia conquered Palestine from the Byzantines. Emperor Heraclius reconquered Palestine in 629 and brought back the shrine with the relic of the Cross to Jerusalem, through the Golden Gate in a triumphal procession. - A tradition tells: Prophet Mohammed wrote a letter to Heraclius, asking him to embrace Islam. The letter, written on gazelle hide, is in the Hashemiya Palace, near Amman. King Hussein of Jordan is a descendant from the prophet Mohammed. A special mosque will be built where the letter of Mohammed to Emperor Heraclius will be on exhibition. (Jerusalem Post, April 13, 1977)

Heraclius, 9th patriarch (1180-1191) of the Latin Patriarchate in Jerusalem. Saladin conquered Jerusalem on Oct 2, 1187.

Herichon, abbas S. Maximini. He visited Palestine in 1024 (AA.SS. Oct XI bis, 137)

Heriembaldus de Cottis. He came to Palestine round 1070. (Andreas Vallumbr., Vita S. Arialdi, c. IV, n. 33, 38) (AA.SS. June 27)

Hermann von Baden, Markgrat. He assisted at the 'assises' of Acre on June 24, 1148. There were also Louis VII, king of France, and Conrad III, emperor of Germany, and Baldwin III, king of Jerusalem.

Hermas. One of the 70 disciples, bishop of Philippopolis, according to the Greek list. Hermas is in the Roman Mart. on May 9. He is greeted by the Apostle Paul in his letter to the Romans (Rom 16, 14) together with Hermes.

Hermes. One of the 70 disciples in the Greek list, bishop of Dalmatia. A Hermes is greeted by St. Paul in Rom. 16, 14. This Hermes is not mentioned in the Roman martyrology.

Hermins is a term used for Armenians.

Hermione. She was the daughter of St. Philip, the Apostle (?) or the Deacon (?). She participated in the preaching of the Gospel. She suffered martyrdom in Ephesus in 117. Greek liturgy on Sept 4.

Hermione, Virgin. She directed a convent of nuns in Eleutheropolis (= Beth Gebrin). Hermione had as opponent the deacon Turbo. The convent of Hermione welcomed the 'saint bishop Ephesius' who was the delegate of Rome. The nuns favoured the friends of Ursinus, who was an opponent of Pope Damasus I (368-384).

Hermits. All hermits are commemorated in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Jan 28.

Hermon, Saint, 38th bishop of Jerusalem (302-312). Hermon sent preachers to Tauro-Scythia: first Ephrem to Scythia, and Basil to Cherson; and later Eugenius, Agathodorus, Capiton and Elpidius; and still later Aitherus. The memory of these missionaries is in the Greek liturgy on March 7; in the Roman Martyrology on March 4.

Heroda, martyr. Mentioned in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on Genbot 20. (= ninth month, May 6-June 4)

Heroda: Abba Heroda was from the city of Sebastia. He lived while Diocletian was emperor (284-313). Heroda was interrogated and he confessed: 'I am a man of the city of Sebastia and from the province of Benhesa'. He was asked by the governor Lucianus to sacrifice. Heroda refused and was beheaded on the 25th day of the month of Genbot. (Eth. Syn.)

Herodias. Name of the dancing daughter of Herodias. Her dance pleased tetrarch Herod Antipas, who beheaded John the Baptist.

Herodias, wife of Herod Antipas. John the Baptist rebuked Herod Antipas because of Herodias, the wife of Herod Philip, who was a half-brother of Antipas. This Herod Philip was the son of Herod the Great and of the Jewess Mariamne II. This Herod Philip is to be distinguished from the tetrarch Herod Philip. Tetrarch Herod Philip was the son of Herod the Great and of his wife, the Jewess Cleopatra. Tetrarch Philip married afterwards Salome, who was, according to some traditions, the dancing daughter of Herodias. Tetrarch Herod Philip died in AD 33-34, after 27 years of rule. - It was probably after the death of Emperor Augustus (14 AD) that Herodias divorced in Rome from Herod Philip, who was without function, and married his half-brother, the tetrarch of Galilee, Herod Antipas. Why did John the Baptist rebuke round 29 for a divorce that had happened about 14 years before? - The text in Mark 10, 12: 'if a woman divorces her husband' refers perhaps to the conduct of Herodias in Rome.

Herodion. One of the 70 disciples, bishop of Tarsus, in the Greek list. - The Roman Martyrology has on April 8: Herodion, Asyncrites, Phlegon. These three names are mentioned in Rom 16, 11-14. The Greek liturgy has on April 8: Herodion, Agabus, Rufus, Asyncrites, Phlegon and Hermes.

Herodion. Name of a martyr at the time of the Apostles. (Greek Synaxaries have his feast on April 8)

Herodion. One of the 70 disciples, bishop of Tarsus, in the Greek list. - The Roman Martyrology has on April 8: Herodion, Asyncrites, Phlegon. These three names are mentioned in Rom 16, 11-14. The Greek liturgy has on April 8: Herodion, Agabus, Rufus, Asyncrites, Phlegon and Hermes.

Herodion. Name of a martyr at the time of the Apostles. (Greek Synaxaries have his feast on April 8)

Herodion. Another of the 70 disciples, according to the Greek list. An Herodion of Patras in Greece (one of the 70 disciples) is venerated on March 28 and March 30; and on Nov 10;-, and on April 8.

Herodion, fortress. East of Bethlehem Herod the Great gained a victory over Antigonus in 42 BC. In memory of this victory Herod built at the foot of the hill the settlement Herodia, and on the summit of the hill the fortress Herodium. Herod died in Jericho, but he had asked to be buried on the Herodium. (Compare Frank Mountain)

Hess Rudolf. His father was a diplomat in Egypt. He came, before 1914, with his son Rudolf, who was then about 12 years, to Jerusalem and he visited the family Vester in the American Colony. Generally the boy Rudolf was very nervous, he very often escaped from dinner and went to the stables to observe the cattle. (Vester, Our Jerusalem) In 1941 Rudolf Hess, as Stellvertreter of Adolf Hitler, flew to England to propose peace-conditions. Rudolf was considered as a prisoner of war. After the war, he was condemned to life imprisonment by the Nürnberg-trial. In March 1980 he was still in the prison of Spandau in West-Berlin.

Hester Stanhope. This Lady excavated in 1815 at Ashkelon, in the hope to find statues.

Hesychius, priest of Jerusalem. Sept 22, 23; Nov 23. He lived in the 5th century. He declared: 'the country is the soul, the 50th year (jobelyear) is the general resurrection'. (Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique, 1972, p. 970-971). - The AA.SS. mention his feast on March 28; and have his death in 454.

Foundation of priest Hesychius. Palestinian-Georgian cal. Sept 22: In the building of Hesychius, the priest, was his commemoration and the 'depositio' of Peter, Paul, Isaiah, George, Thyrsus.

Hesychius Majumenus. Died 373. (AA.SS. Oct 3)

Heterius. See: Rufus patronus

Hetum II, King of Armenia (1289-1305). He entered the Franciscan Order under the name of John. He was killed during a banquet on Nov 18, 1308. King Hetum II sent the Franciscan monk, John of Montecorvino to Pope Nicholas W with his testimony of submission (1289). Despite the Pope's attempt to send aid, the Mameluks captured Hromcla in 1292. A synod in Sis in 1307 undertook dogmatic and disciplinary reforms in accord with Roman prescriptions. The Franciscan monk John (the former Hetum II) and his nephew, King Leo IV, were killed, together with fourty noble men, during a banquet at Anazarbe on Nov 18, 1308. The Blessed John is remembered in the Martyrologium Franciscanum on Oct 1. - Hetum II conquered Jerusalem in 1300 for a short period. Hetum II was king of the Armenian kingdom of Cilicia and was an ally of the Mongol Ghazan. - Hetum built an altar at the tomb of the Virgin Mary in Jerusalem, and he financed repairs of Armenian churches.

Hewan = the Ethiopian name for Eve.

Hezekiah Abba. The Ethiopian Synaxarium has on the 27th day of the month Magabit: 'On this day died the strenuous ascetic and fighter Abba Hezekiah, the father of the monks of Dabra Libanos. He was the fourth abbot from our father Talkla Haymanot.

Hezekiah. The father of the three companions (Azarias, Ananias, Misael) in the fiery furnace.

Hezekiah, King of Judah 715-687 BC. He instituted a religious reform, destroying the places of Baal-worship. Hezekiah first paid tribute to King Sennacharib of Assyria. Hezekiah was cured of a boil by the prayer of prophet Isaiah and the applicationn of a fig poultice (2 Kings 20, 1-11; Isaiah 38, 1-8). About 700 BC King Hezekiah brought water from an upper outlet of the spring of Gihon to the west of the city of David. (2 Chr. 32, 30) - An inscription in the socalled Canal of Hezekiah, inside the Pool of Siloe was discovered in 1880. The inscription was cut from the rock and taken to Istambul. - There is no cult of Hezekiahin the Western Church. In the Eastern Churches he is remembered on Aug 28 in the Synaxarium of Constantinople. Hezekiah is venerated in the Ethiopian Church, on the 4th day of the month Nahasse (= the twelfth month, Aug 4Sept 2). - The tunnel of Hezekiah(550 metres) can be traversed by tourists. In the inscription Hezekiahis not mentioned. Some scholars mean that the inscription precedes the days of Hezekiah.

Hezychius, St., confessor. (Memory Oct 3 in Mart. Rom.) He was a disciple of St. Hilarion of Gaza and his companion on journeys. Hezychius died in 373 in Majuma near Gaza.

Hezychius, priest, Martyr in Antioch under Emperor Maximian (286. 305). He was not a priest, but an officer in the imperial palace. The title 'priest' causes confusion sometimes with Hesychius, priest of Jerusalem. Hezychius, martyr, is commemorated on March 4, and on March 5.

Hierarchs. Three Hierarchs: Basilius of Caesarea (Cappadocia); Gregory of Nazianze, the Theologian; John Chrysostom. These 'three defenders of the Holy Trinity' were venerated on Jan 30.

Hieremias, prior Carmeli, 1218. (AA.SS. Aug 16)

Hieremias seu Orestes, patriarch of Jerusalem. He died about 1012. Mentioned in AA.SS. on May 17 and May 18.

Hierges. This Crusader family possessed the Castle of Mirabel (Migdal Aphek; Mejdal Yaba). There an inscription mentions 'Martyrion of Saint Kerykos'.

Hieronymus, St. (of Bethlehem). see: Jerome.

Hieronymus of Padula, servant of God. This Franciscan died in Jerusalem from the plague on Sept 12, 1670.

Hieronymus Sapsanus, prior Carmeli. Died 1223. AA.SS. July 19.

Hieronymus of Weert (Netherlands). This Franciscan has served in the Holy Land. He was martyred in Gorcum, together with 18 companions, on July 9, 1572. Canonization 1867. Rom. Mart. July 9.

Hierotheus of Athens. (Greek liturgy, Oct 4) He converted to Christianity by St. Paul's sermon in Athens. He was consecrated as first bishop of Athens to be succeeded by Dionysius Areopagites. Hierotheus is said to have been present at the failing asleep (= koimesis) of the Blessed Virgin.

Hilaire, of France. This Franciscan was Superior at Nazareth. He was imprisoned in 1632 during two months by Terabith, who was an emir of the Bedouins and the rival of Fakr-el-Din.

Hilarion of Gaza. He was born in 293 in Tabatha of Gaza, studied in Alexandria where he accepted the Christian faith. After living with St. Anthony for a while, he distributed his property and entered the anchorite life. Because of the many people who visited him, he left Gaza and visited Egypt, Sicily and Dalmatia. Finally he went to Cyprus where he died at Paphos in 373. His biography was written by St. Jerome. The Greek liturgy has his feast on Dec 21. The Roman Martyrology mentions him on October 21: In Cyprus, the death of St. Hilarion Abbas.

Hilarion of Maiuma = Hilarion of Gaza.

Hilarion, St. Martyr. The Melkite liturgy mentions on July 12: Proclus and Hilarion, martyred under Emperor Trajan (98-117).

Hilarius, episcopus Pictavenis (Poitiers in Aquitaine), saint. The AA.SS. on Jan 13 mention that Hilarius visited the Holy Land, round 356-359. Hilarius (born round 315 - died 367) was exiled to Asia Minor by Emperor Constantius II. There Hilarius lived from 356 to 359. After the Synod of Seleucia (359) he went to Constantinople.

Hildebertus, Meldensis episcopus, St. He visited the Holy Land, 672-680. (fabulosum) (AA.SS. May 27)

Hildegarde, St. Abbess of Rupertsberg, mystic and writer. Born 1098, died at Rupertsberg (Germany) on Sept 17, 1179. Feast Sept 17. She made a prophecy about the Emperor of Germany Conrad who participated at the second crusade (1146-1147) (Anal. Boll. 11, 125)

Hildegundis, St. She came, together with her father, to Palestine round 1180. Hildegundis was from Schönau (Germany). She travelled in the clothings of a man. She received hospitality in the house of the Templars (Vita S., Hildegundis, auctore Connovitio, n. 49). She died in the convent of Schönau, in 1188. (AA.SS. April 20)

Hilduinus, comes Arcelacensis. He came to Palestine in 992, together with Adso. (AA.SS. Oct 16).

Hinterkeuser August (Brother Wendelinus of Menden (Germany). August was the son of Matthia Hinterkeuser and Christina Frey. Born in 1851, died at Tiberias on Sept 20, 1921. He rebuilt the Chapel of the 2nd Station in 1904, and the nearby Convent of the Flagellation in 1910. He helped for the restoration of the Synagogue at Capharnaum during the last 15 years of his life.

Hippicus. The tower Hippicus in the Citadel of David at the Jaffa Gate, Jerusalem, is smaller than the tower Phasael, but bigger than the tower Mariamne. Tower Hippicus honours Hippicus, who was the friend of Herod the Great.

Hoade Eugene, Franciscan from Ireland. He, together with his friends, donated the altar on the right side (south side) in the Grotto of Arrest at Gethsemane. Above this altar is a painting that represents the kiss of Judas. - Hoade was 29 years in the Holy Land. His 'Guide to the Holy Land' had its 9th edition in 1978. Hoade died at Rome on March 17, 1972.

Hodgkin Thomas, English physician. He discovered the Hodgkin's disease. He is buried in the old christian cemetery of Jaffa.

Hoffmann Christopher (1815-1885). He founded in Wurtemberg the 'Tempelgemeinde' (community of the Temple). Its members came to Palestine in 1868. Their ideal was the erect the ideal Christian community in the 'Land of Promise'. The first settlement was outside Jaffa.

Hobert Krisirachs, servant of God. He belonged to the Franciscan province of Cologne; on his journey to the Holy Land he died at Saida, Lebanon, on Jan 15, 1670.

Honorius III (Pope 1216-1227) forbids pilgrimage to Holy Sepulchre. In his bull 'Cum carissimi in Christo filii' of July 24, 1217, which was sent to the main harbours of embarkment for the Holy Land, (Genoa, Messina, Brindisi) Honorius forbids 'under excommunication' the pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.

Honoratus, St. bishop of Aries. see Caprasius. Honoratus visited Palestine round 380. (AA.SS. June 1)

Hortulana. St. Clara of Assisi (born 1194) was her first child. Hortulana came to Palestine at the end of the 12th century. (AA.SS. Aug 12)

Hosea. Hosea prophesied in the northern kingdom of Israel for a period starting towards the end of the reign of Jeroboam II (783-743 BC). Hosea denounced the prevailing idol worship, which crept into 'the high places', the local shrines on hilltops and under sacred trees. He was caustic too about the golden calves introduced into the sanctuaries of Bethel and Dan by the northern kingdom of Israel. Hosea was married to Gomer, who turned out to be a loose woman, 'a wife of harlotry'. He probably divorced Gomer by the formal declaration that 'she is not my wife, and 1 am not her husband'(Hosea 2, 2) but he continued to love his erring wife. - The book Hosea is the first of the 12 minor prophets. The Roman Martyrology has his memory on July 4; the Greek synaxaries commemorate Hosea on Oct 17; the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Oct 16. The Ethiopian Synaxarium salutes Hosea on Yakatit 26.

Hosea and Haggal, SS. prophets: Mart. Rom. July 4.

Hospitalers of St. John in Jerusalem. They built round 1130 the Church St. Marie Majeure (Sainte Marie Latine) and the cloister which is now Erlöserkirche (Church of the Redeemer) and the Muristan. Saladin in 1187 made the cloister to his residence.

Hospitalers of St. John at Tabor. Pope Clement W (?) (1265-68) accorded on April 1, 1255 (?) Mount Tabor to the Hospitalers of St. John. In 1263 Bybars el Bandoukdar started from Egypt and conquered the Holy Land. Bybars encamped between Mount Tabor and the mountain Little Hermon.

Houtermans W. l. In the Milk Grotto in Bethlehem is a wooden sculpture 'Madonna with Bambino' (heighth about 70 cm) by W. I. Houtermans, Roermond (Netherlands). This sculpture (behind glass) is on the main altar. In the Milk Grotto are other sculptures of Dutch artists.

Hovag, Armenian Monsignor. He began to build in 1880 the Church above the 4th Station, which belongs to the Armenian Catholics. He rediscovered the mosaic with the floor of the Byzantine church, and the mosaiced representation of two sandals. Hovag died in Jerusalem in 1929, he is buried in the crypt of the 4th Station.

Hovagin, Armenian Patriarch. In the Armenian cemetery which is outside the Zion Gate in Jerusalem is his inscription: This is the resting place of Patriarch Hovagin, called Zovadzin - born of the sea - the only survivor of a shipwreck.

Hovhan, Armenian. A marble urn which was discovered at Jerusalem, had the Armenian inscription: 'Petros who made this cross, and Hovhan who caused it to be made. '

Hripsime, St. In the southeast of the church of the Holy Archangels in the Armenian Quarter of Jerusalem is the vestry, known as the Chapel of St. Hripsime. There is a carved wooden door dating from 1649.

Hrosnata (Goznata) Ord. Praemonst. Martyr, Blessed. He was a knight. After the death of his wife and of his child, he transformed in 1193 his castle at Tepi (Bohemia) into a convent for Premonstratensian Canons. He came to Palestine round 1197. In 1217 he was taken prisoner by the knights of Kinsber. He refused to pay a ransom and he died as a prisoner on July 14, 1217. (AA.SS. July 14)

Hugh of Payens. In 1118, Baldwin I (he ruled 1100 till April 2, 1118) gave the hospitality of EI Aqsa mosque to Hugh of Payens and his 8 companions, who founded the Order of the Knights Templars.

Hugh of Vermandois. He was the brother of Philip I, king of France (1052-1108). Hugh partook to the first crusade (1096-1099).

Hugo, episcopus Tiberiadis seu Tabariae, 1308. (AA.SS. Nov 1)

Hugo de Tociaco. Came to Palestine round 1100. (AA.SS. Oct 20)

Hugo of Genua, St., Knight of St. John. Died 1230 (AA.SS. Oct 8).

Hugo, prior of the Templars. Executed round July 25, 1266 at Safed by Sultan Baybars. (Compare: Three Martyrs)

Hugo Panciera, Blessed. Born in Prato (Italy). In 1312 he was in Constantinople and belonged to the Mission of the Holy Land. The Martyrologium Franciscanum remembers him on March 5.

Hugue de Saint Omer (or Hugue de Fauquenberge près de Thérouanne). He saved King Baldwin I at Jaffa by the help of his Galilaean cavalry on May 21, 1102.

Hugues, Seigneur de Puiset. He was count of Jaffa, after Roger de Rozoy. Hugues was succeeded by Amaury who was the brother of Baldwin III (1143-1162).

Hulda the Prophetess. She was consulted by the officers of King Josiah (640-609 BC). She responded with a prediction of disaster for the kingdom of Judah because of its failure to observe the law. Hulda is mentioned among the Just of the Old Testament, on the first Sunday of Advent in the Eastern Church.

Gate(s) of Hulda(h): The Double Gate or the Hulda(h) Gate south of the Esplanade of the Temple goes back to the time of Herod the Great. Does this name refer to a tomb of Hulda inside the city of David? Did the low vaulted passage under the present EI Aqsa mosque contribute to the name Huldah, which can signify a mole? Is the name 'Gate (singular) of Hulda(h)' restricted only to the eastern aisle of the Double Gate? To the west side of the western aisle of the Double Gate is, inside the EI Aqsa mosque, a so-called footprint of Christ. To the west side of the minbar (pulpit) are two mihrabs (niches of prayer). The bigger niche is dedicated to Moses; the smaller niche is dedicated to Issa (Jesus). This prayer-niche can remind us to the text of John I0, 39: 'Jesus escaped from their hands'. Indeed the entrance to the Temple went upstairs the eastern aisle of the Double Gate; the western aisle was for leaving the area of the temple.

Tomb of Hulda: The Grotto of Pelagia on top of the Mount of Olives is considered by Jews as the tomb of the prophetess Hulda who lived in the time of King Josias (2 Chr. 24, 22). - The book Tosefta Baba Bathra places the tomb of Hulda, with that of David, within the city of Jerusalem.

Humbaldus, St., episcopus Autissiodorensis. He came to Palestine in 1115. (Vita S. Humb., n. 13) (AA.SS. Oct 20)

Hungary: a certain king of Hungary came to Palestine round 1080 (fabulosum) (Miracula S. Annae, c. I, n. 5) (AA.SS. July 8 and 26)

Hunt Holman William (1827-1910) This English painter spent from 1854 many years in Palestine. Near the convent of Mar Elias on the road from Jerusalem to Bethlehem, he painted his great religious pictures: 'The Light of the World' and 'The Scapegoat'. His widow, Edith, erected on the westside of the road, opposite the convent Mar Elias, a stone seat. Inscribed on the seat are verses from the Bible in Hebrew, Greek, English and Arabic.

Hunter. According to Hunter's 'History of the-War in Syria' the sultan of Constantinople offered the Church St. Anne in Jerusalem to England. England as an ally of Turkey had bombarded in 1840 the harbour of Acre. The bombardment obliged Pasha Ibrahim to retire from Acre. Lord Palmer declined to accept the Church of St. Anne. - Later, after the Crimean War (1854-1856), the Church was given to France, by Sultan Abdul Mejid. France accepted the Church.

Hur, brother of Aaron the priest. See: Aaron.

Hymenaeus, 36th bishop of Jerusalem. Died round 268 (AA.SS.).

Hypatus and Theodoulos of Phoenicia (Lebanon). Both were commissioned by Adrianus the Governor, to arrest Leontius. This Leontius was an officer of the Roman army that was stationed in Tripoli of Phoenicia. Hypatus and Theodoulos were converted during the process against Leontius. When the governor heard about the conversion, he beheaded the two converts. It happened during the reign of Emperor Vespasian (69-79). The feast of Hypatus and Theodoulos is on June 18 in the Greek liturgy, and in the Roman Martyrology.

Hyperectius, martyr in Palestine, 3rd/4th cent. (AA.SS. Jan 29)

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