A. Mertens, "Who was a Christian in the Holy Land?" - Encyclopedia

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Earthquakes, commemorated in - the Greek liturgy: -On Sept 29 is commemorated the earthquake Which happened under Emperor Theodosius the Great (= Theodosius I, 379-395); -On Oct 26 is remembered the earthquake under Emperor Leo, the [saurian, the first of the iconoclasts emperors, (717-740); -On Nov 6 is the remembrance of the heavy fall (rain) of ashes, which threatened to burn the town of Constantinople (466) under Emperor Leo the Great (= Leo I, 457-474); -On Jan 26 remembrance of the earthquake about 450 under Emperor Theodosius Minor (= Theodosius II, 408450). This earthquake occurred during three months-The earthquakes are considered in the liturgy in connection with politics: the earthquake under Emperor Theodosius the Great was regarded as a threat against the Nestorian heresy; the quake about 740 against the iconoclasm which was propagated by Emperor Leo the Isaurian; the calamity of 466 against the Arians, who were protected by Emperor Leo I. 1 the earthquake round 450 was connected with a votum for the Council of Chalcedon (451) against the Monophysites.

Eastern pilgrims and Holy Fire: 198 pilgrims were killed in a panic, during the ceremony of the Holy Fire on Holy Saturday, May 3, 1834, in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. lbrahim Pasha, the Egyptian conqueror of Palestine in 1831, assisted at the ceremony of the Holy Fire and narrowly escaped before the stampede. (Curzon Robert, Visits to Monasteries in the Levant. London, 1849, p. 208-235)

Eclipse of the sun in 1269: In the reign of Iyôb Kher, and in the days of Abba Cyril. (Ethiopian Synaxarium, Tekemt 9).

Ecumenical Patriarch. He is considered as 'primus inter pares' i.e. he receives the first place in honorific precedence.

Eden Anthony. He died on Jan 13, 1977 in England. Eden was a major architect of the 1956 invasion of the Suez Canal Zone by Britain, France and Israel in a bid to wrest control of the canal zone from Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser. Eden then was Prime Minister, and the three had to withdraw from the Suez Canal Zone because of the opposition of the Eisenhower administration, which was spearheaded by then Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles.

Edessa Refugees: Queen Melisend, who was an Armenian, brought in 1144 to Jerusalem many Armenian and Syrian survivors of the town Edessa, which had fallen to Zenghi. A colophon in a lectionary in St. Mark's, which was written in the convent of St. Mary Magdalen in Jerusalem in 1149 by 'a sinful and humble monk from Edessa' praises King Baldwin and Queen Melisend for all they did for these unhappy survivors of Edessa. (Taylor W. R. Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research, XI, (1931), pp. 120-123)

Edessa, a site near Jericho: Six miles north of Jericho was a sanctuary in honour of John of Edessa, who was a soldier from Edessa and who had associated himself with Cyrus. Cyrus and John became martyrs during the persecution of Diocletian (284-315). (Patr. Gr. 120, 26112; 269170)

Edokis, priest (Eudoxius?) see lsaac the Samaritan.

Edward of England (Later King Edward I). Prince Edward joined St. Louis of France, and they landed at Carthage in July 1270. There Louis died of a sickness on Aug 26, 1270. Prince Edward conducted a crusade of his own to Acre in 1270. There he met in 1271 his friend Visconti (the later Pope Gregory X).

Edward VII, (of England). As Prince of Wales, he visited Jerusalem in 1862 and was there tattooed. He encamped north of the city on a site, which was known as the Karem (Vineyard) of the sheikh el-Khalili. This sheikh planted a pine-tree. The tree is now almost 300 years old. In 1971 the Nelson Rockefeller Park was opened here. In Crusader days this area was occupied by the Farm of Belveer. Near the Nelson Rockefeller Park is Rockefeller Museum, formerly Palestine Archaeological Museum.

Eelko and Sikko. Famous leaders of the Crusaders of Friesland in the first crusade (1096-1099). (AA.SS. March 22)

Effernanus de Lunello, Saint. He planned, together with Saint Gerius, to visit Palestine in the 13th century. (AA.SS. May 25)

Egelwinus, monk. He visited Palestine round 1020. (Miracula S. Dunstani, n. 21) (AA.SS. May 19)

Egidius of Assisi, Blessed, disciple of St. Francis of Assisi. Egidius was the first Franciscan to come to the Holy Land as a pilgrim in 1215 (died 1261, at Perugia, on the eve of St. George, the martyr, i.e. on 22-23 April). His memory, kept by the Franciscans, is on April 23. See: Aegidius of Assisi.

Egidius of Perugia = Egidius of Assisi.

Egion = Aegion.

Egypt, Stay in Egypt. The place of the sole of the foot of the Child Jesus, is in the monastery of Gamnudi in Egypt. The place is called Dabra Metmak. Another place where a well was found, is Matareya near Heliopolis in Egypt. The stay of Jesus in Egypt after his flight from Bethlehem is remembered in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 24th of the month Genbot.

Egyptian merchants. They lived in the town of Majuma near Gaza in 401. (Vita S. Porphyrii, auct. Marco diac., c. VIll, n. 58) (AA.SS. Feb 26)

Eichmann Adolf. This Nazi organised the extermination of the Jews during the Second World War. He escaped from Germany in 1945, he was discovered at Buenos-Aires and captured in 1960. He was brought to Israel. There he was executed.

Eight Palestinian martyrs in Alexandria: Agapius, two Alexander, two Dionysius, Timolaos, Romylos, Plesius (Paesis). They were martyred on March 24, 297. (Eusebius, De Mart. Palest., 111, 3-4)

Eisenhower Dwight. He obliged in 1956 Britain, France, Israel to withdraw from the occupied Suez Canal Zone. He accepted in 1961 to visit Jordan and the Holy Places.

Eleazar, priest and the son of Aaron. He is commemorated on Sept 3 by the lectionary of Paris, together with the priest Aaron and with his son, Phinehas. The three are venerated in the village of Thamnachar. - Flavius Josephus (Ant. 5, 119) speaks of a mnemeion and a taphos of Eleazar in Gabatha (= hight). Petrus Diaconus (417) sees 'on another hight the church above the tomb of Eleazar and his son Phinehas'. This mount was near Thamnatsare, where the grave of Joshua was venerated. According to the Samaritan tradition the highpriest Eleazar and his son Phinehas are buried in the village of Awarta. In this village is the tomb EI Azeir (Eleazar) and the tomb el Azeirat. Nebi Saleh, a village with a Police Station on the way from Bir Zeit to Abud, claims that there Eleazar, the son of Aaron, was buried.

Eleazar, the scribe. This man of 90 years of age, refused to eat pork during the campaign of King Antiochus Epiphanes (=Antiochus W, 175-163 BC) who tried to Hellenize the Jews (2 Mac 6, 18-31). The Armenian lectionary remembers the martyrdom of Eleazar. The Georgian liturgy and the Greek liturgy commemorate the seven Maccabean brothers and their mother on Aug 1. The Melkite liturgy has the memory of the seven brothers and of the aged Eleazar, on August 1. The martyrs were not of the family of the Maccabeans, but their martyrdom occurred in the time of the Maccabeans. The Roman martyrology does not mention Eleazar, but mentions the mother of the seven brothers: the seven brothers and their mother are venerated in the Roman Martyrology on Aug 1.

Elenar: see Alenar.

Elesba(a)n: see Elesba(a)s, king of Ethiopia.

Elesba(a)s, (Elesboas, Kaleb), king of Ethiopia, Oct 27. In the Ethiopian Church his feast is on May 15. Elesbaas was king of Aksum in Ethiopia, he fought in 525 against the Jewish ruler Dhu-Nawas, who persecuted the Christians in Nedjran, a town in South-Arabia. Emperor Justinian asked Elesbaas for his help against the Persians. Elesbaas lost a battle against an opponent, and retired to a cell near Aksum. He died about 555. Elesbaas sent legates to Palestine round 550. (Passio S. Arethae, c. IX, n. 39) (AA.SS. Oct 24)

Eleutherius, St., and Grimoaldus, his brother. They came to Palestine in the 8th century. See also: Grimoaldus de Ponte curvo, Saint, and Eleutherius, who were brothers of Saint Fulcus (round 1137) (AA.SS. Sept 29; May 29; June 3).

Eleutheropolis (Beit Jibrin, Belt Gubrin). 'Sixty martyrs' were buried in the Church of the Holy Trinity at Eleutheropolis. They were from Gaza, they refused to accept the Islam-religion in 638, they passed two months in jail at Eleutheropolis, they were transferred to Jerusalem and there executed. The bodies were brought to Eleutheropolis, and there buried in the Church of the Holy Trinity. (Analecta Bollandiana 23 (1904), 290-303)

Eleutherus, bishop of Jericho. He accompanied John, bishop of Jerusalem, and Eusthonus, bishop of Sebaste, to identify the bones of St. Stephen in Kafargamala in 415.

Eli, priest at Shiloh, in the time of the Judges. Eli was the father of Hophni and Phinehas, two corrupt priests. The prophecy of Samuel (1 Sam 2, 27-36) predicted the fall of the House of Eli. His two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, fell in the battle against the Philistines on the same day. Eli died, when he heard of the tragedy at the battle, which was lost at Aphek. Eli is not listed as a saint. Petrus Diaconus (1137) mentions a tomb of Eli in Shiloh. Jakob of Paris (1258) and Isaak Helo (1334) mention the tomb of Eli and of his two sons in ShiJoh.

Elia, an Armenian monk. The pictorial tiles, numbering 45, arranged in vertical and horizontal rows in the Church St. James of the Armenian Compound in Jerusalem, have been plastered by Elia, who was a monk. The tiles date from 1719 to 1727. They depict stories of the Old and the New Testament.

Elianus, martyr. See: Aelian, Aelianus. Nov 26 and Nov 28 in the Georgian liturgy.

Elias, bishop of Aeropolis. He is mentioned in 536.

Elias, bishop of Madaba. He was bishop of Madaba, probably in 6021603.

Elias, hermit near the Jordan, 3th/4th century. He is mentioned in Acta Sanctorum on September 11.

Elias of Abud, priest. In a colophon (= final inscription) of an evangeliarium in the Syriac language (Vatican), priest Elias, a native of Abud, declared that he finished on Wednesday of the 9th week after Pentecost, this means, in the month of Ab, the writing of the Gospel in the convent of Abuna Moses, which is in the country of Antioch. It was in the year 1341 of Alexander the Greek (= 1030 CE). Elias of Abud returned from Antioch and rebuilt in Abud the convent of Elias, which was known as Deir el Kawkab. The evangeliarium was for this convent of Kawkab in Abud.

Elias of Ascalon, martyr. In the Roman Martyrology Elias is mentioned together with Ares, Probus. The three martyrs were killed on December 14, 308. - Elias, Ares, Promotus (or Probus) are named in June in Martyrologium Usuardi; they are in the Martyrology of Jerusalem on December 15.

Elias of Assisi. Franciscan lay brother. He was the first Minister Provincialis of the Holy Land. He came to Syria in 1217118, he returned to Italy with Francis of Assisi in 1219120. See also: Elias of Cortona.

Elias of Cortona. (= Elias of Assisi). Elias built in Assisi the basilica to house the relics of St. Francis of Assisi. In 1239, at the general chapter that was presided by Pope Gregory IX, Elias was deposed. Soon afterwards Elias joined the Emperor Frederick II; Elias was excommunicated, but he did penance, and he died absolved, at Cortona on April 22, 1253.

Elias of Palestine. He was a bishop of Egypt, he was martyred in Palestine, together with Peleus, Nilus, under Diocletian (284-313). The commemoration in the Roman Martyrology is on Sept 19; in the Coptic calendar on September 12.

Elias I, patriarch of Jerusalem. His memory in the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem is on July 21; the Greek Patriarchate has the memory on July 4. Elias was patriarch of Jerusalem from 498 to 518. He died in exile in 518. At the Synod of Sidon in 511, Elias was summoned to condemn the doctrine of Chalcedon. But Elias won the majority of the bishops to his side and sent a delegation under Sabas of Constantinople to defend his position in Jerusalem. Emperor Anastasius 1(491-518) exiled Elias to Aila (Eilath) in 516. - The Syriae Church has his feast on Feb 18; the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Jan 26. The AA.SS. have the feast on July 4.

Elias II, patriarch of Jerusalem (787-797). Perhaps Elias II is meant by the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Jan 27. Elias II was exiled to Persia during a period of a twenty years till about 787. The date of his death is round 800. (AA.SS. Feb 25)

Elias III, patriarch of Jerusalem (879-907). Elias III asked in 881 from King Charles le Gros (839-888) subsidies for the repair of the churches, that had been damaged by the Moslems. - According to a colophon originating from St. Sabas, Elias III died on Oct 4, 906. He was succeeded by Sergius II.

Elias, Latin patriarch of Jerusalem in Acre, 1279-1287. (AA.SS. Prop., May)

Elias, priest and recluse at Beit-Shean. In the monastery of Lady Mary is a church with the apse facing eastwards. Its mosaic pavement has 2 inscriptions. The inscription before the apse on the left side reads: 'Where the wreath-cross is, there lies the... of the mouth of the tomb, having rings. There have I laid my Christ-loving sister Georgia, I, Elias, by the mercy of God a most lowly recluse. ' The inscription before the apse on the right side reads: 'Where the wreath-cross is, there lies the... But if the Lady Mary, who founded this church, desires to be laid in this tomb, or anyone of her family at any time - I, Elias, by the mercy of God a recluse, in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost curse and anathematize everyone after me that hinders her or any of hers, or that takes up this my inscription. '- 'Christ-loving Lady Mary and her son Maximus' were the founders of this monastery, about the year 567. So it is recorded twice in the mosaic floor.

Elias, the Soldier, martyr of Egypt in 3091310 in Caesarea, Pales. tine, under Emperor Galerius (305. 311). Elias, Jeremias, Isaias, Samuel and Daniel converted to Christianity and received the names of five prophets. They went from Alexandria to Cilicia, to support the persecuted Christians. On the return they visited Pamphilus and Porphyrus in the prison at Caesarea, Palestine. There the five were arrested and beheaded. The AA.SS. mention them on Feb 16. They are venerated also on Aug 21.

Elias Zelotes = Elijah, the Prophet. The Ethiopian Synaxarium on Tâkhshâsh 1 tells: On the day of his birth his father Iyasênyû saw two men shining with light bowing down before him, and they wrapped the boy in fire, instead of the rags in which they wrap children. And after his birth his father came to Jerusalem and told the priests this, and they said: 'It is that his abode shall be in light, and that he shall cut (i.e. decide) with his words, and shall judge Israel with the sword and with fire'.... Salutation to Elias, who shut up the heaven, that there should be no rain.

Elijah, the Prophet. Elijah, the Tishbite, of Tishbe in Gilead (?) said to King Ahab: There shall be neither dew nor rain these years. Elijah predicted the destruction of the house of Ahab because of the judicial murder of Naboth by the queen Jezebel to obtain his vineyard for Ahab. (1 Kings 21, 1-29) Elijah held an ordeal on Mount Carmel. Elijah's appeal to Yahweh was answered when his sacrifice was consumed by a bolt of lightning, and rain then came from the sea. Elijah was carried to heaven in a chariot of fire. The belief that Elijah would return already existed when the book of the prophet Malachi was written (Malachi 3, 23). This Jewish belief is mentioned in the Gospels (Mt 11, 14; Mk 9, 11). Elijah, representing prophecy, with Moses, who represented the law, witnessed the glorification of Jesus (Transfiguration). At Nazareth Jesus alluded to the episode of Elijah and the widow of Zarephtah in Phoenicia (Luke 4, 25) to illustrate the rejection of a prophet in his own country. Elijah, 'a man like us', is proposed as a model of prayer. (Letter of St. James 5, 17). - Greek and Georgian liturgies and also the Martyrologium Romanum have his feast on July 20. The Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem has a particular feast.

Ascension of Elijah: Greek Synaxaries have its commemoration on July 20 -, the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on September 3. An episode in the Georgian Life of SS. Jean and Euthymius tells that there was a feast of Elijah in the beginning of September in Iviron: after a drought of four months (from May till August included) rain began to fall on the feast of Elijah in the beginning of September. - The little hill, Jebel Mar Elias, at about one km. from Deir Mar Johannou, opposite Jericho to the east of the Jordan is identified with the place where Elijah went up to heaven. Jebel Mar Elias recalls the Armonia of the Byzantines.

Cave of Elijah: At the foot of Mount Carmel is Elijah's Cave, or the School of the Prophets. To the east is a smaller grotto. Officially it is the mosque of EI Khader (The green, the immortal), with a public garden round it. The Christians and the Moslems venerate here the School of the Prophet. The Jews hold that Elijah took refuge here from king Ahab (869-850 BC).

Flight of Elijah: The Greek Orthodox monastery Mar Elias is between Jerusalem and Bethlehem. According to legend, the monastery recalls the site where Elijah rested on his flight from the vengeance of queen Jezabel (1 Kings 19). Near this monastery the Magi saw again the star that guided them to Bethlehem.

Return of Elijah: And Elijah, the prophet, and Enoch shall come together in the last days, and they shall rebuke the false Christ. (Ethiopian Synaxarium, Ter 6)

Elijah of Damascus, martyr. He was born at Heliopolis Baalbek in Lebanon), he was martyred in the Jewish year 6287 779 AD). The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has the feast on Feb 4.

Elijah, patriarch of Jerusalem. He died in 513 or 518. He began (according to Eutychius) the church of Elina (= Nea), but did not finish this church. - To be identified with Elias I, patriarch of Jerusalem, who died in 518.

Elina: Eutychius (Arab historian, who died 939) mentions Elina. But Elina should be understood as Nea (Church Nea in Jerusalem) (Clermont-Ganneau, Recueil, 11 p. 137 ss).

Elisabeth of Hungary, St. (1207-1231). The Polish Hospice of St. Elisabeth (erected in 1911) is on the site of the Crusader Hungarian Hospice. It is near the 7th Station, in the Christian Quarter of Jerusalem, on Aqabat el Battikh (= the slope of the water-melon). Elisabeth's husband, the Landgrat, died in 1227 as a crusader on his way to the Orient. The feast of Elisabeth of Hungary is on November 17. Formerly it was on November 19.

Elisabeth, queen of Belgium. She was born in 1876. She visited Jerusalem, together With her husband, King Albert 1, in April 1933. On Easter (April 16, 1933) they were in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. Afterwards, as widow and ex-queen, Elisabeth visited Israel and the Old City of Jerusalem in 1959. On Good Friday, March 27, 1959, or (and) Good Friday, March 27, 1964 she assisted during twenty minutes to the Gregorian chant of the Officium Tenebrarum in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. Elisabeth helped Jews to escape from the persecution during World War ll.

Elisha (= Eliseus), St., prophet. Elisha was called by prophet Elijah from behind the plow. Elisha accompanied Elijah at this 'translation into heaven', and received from him his mantle and a double portion of his prophetic spirit, the portion of the eldest son (2 Kings 2, 1-18). Elisha purified the water at Jericho; he cursed the mocking boys. Elisha is mentioned in Luke 4, 27: 'There were many lepers in Israel in the time of prophet Elisha; and none of them was cleansed, but only Na'aman, the Syrian. ' - The Mart. Rom. has Elisha on May 14. The Georgian liturgy mentions him on Aug 3, and on June 14115, on Sept 2 and Sept 29.

Fountain of Eliseus: To the east of Tell es-Sultan, where was the Jericho of the Old Testament, is Ain es-Sultan. This spring is called by the Christians 'Fountain of Eliseus'. Indeed, Eliseus cast a handful of salt in the fountain and made the water drinkable, as is related in 2 Kings 2, 19.

Mount Carmel and Eliseus: Eliseus often came to Mount Carmel, but he lived in Samaria (2 Kings 5, 9). The grotto of El-Khader was a place of cult already in the Byzantine era, as the Greek graffiti show, and without doubt, Elias - if not first Eliseus - took the place of some pagan Baal. An older monastery having been destroyed, a church was built or rebuilt there at the time of the Crusades and inhabited by Latin hermits.

Tomb of Eliseus in Samaria: In the crypt of a Byzantine church which is in the village of Sebaste, a former town in the district of Samaria, is the tomb of the prophet Eliseus and the tomb of the prophet Abdias. In 1165 the Crusaders renovated this Byzantine church.

Elizabeth, St., wife of Zachariah the priest and mother of John the Baptist. Elizabeth was a relative (degree unspecified, sometimes indicated as cousin) of Mary (Lk 1, 1-80). In the lower church of the Visitation shrine, which is on the hill at Ain Karem, in a niche there is a big stone with a cavity. According to tradition this cavity opened to receive the child John, when his mother fled into the mountains to escape the fury of Herod's soldiers, who killed the boys under two years in Bethlehem and in the neighbourhood (Mt 2, 16). A fresco of Elizabeth hiding John is in this lower church. In the wall of the courtyard that faces the entrance of this lower church, are fixed tiles with the text of the hymn Magnificat in 41 languages. The upper church has frescoes recalling 5 titles of Mary: Mother of God; Refuge of Sinners; Dispenser of Grace (Wedding at Cana); Help of Christians (Battle of Lepanto); Immaculate Conception (Dispute of Bi. Duns Scotus). The feast of Elizabeth is on Nov 5 in the Martyrologium Romanum. The Georgian-Palestinian lectionary of Paris has a memory of Elisabeth in Ain Karem on Aug 28. This memory is perhaps related to the beheading of John, which is in the lectionary remembered on Aug 29. The saving of John is mentioned in the Protoevangelium Jacobi, 22, 1- A feast of Elizabeth on Nov 6 is particular to the Franciscans in the Custody of the Holy Land.

Elizabeth and Jerusalem: The Ethiopian Synaxarium relates on Yakâtît 16: Elizabeth was from Jerusalem and the name of her mother was Sophia. The name of her father was Mâtât.

Visit of Mary to Elizabeth: Formerly the feast was on July 2; since 1970 the feast is on May 31.

Elliott Anthony, British Ambassador in Israel. He drowned off Caesarea beach on Saturday, Aug 28, 1976.

Elpidia-inscription: see Umm er-Ru'us.

Elpidius, St. He lived round 350 in the convent Douka (Jebel Qurantal, Jebel ed Duq) near Jericho.

Elpidius et Sisinnius, Saints, of Cappadocia. They lived as anchorets near Jericho, round 350. (Acta S. Elpidii, gr., cum lat. vers.; Vita S. Charitonis, c. II, n. 11; S. Basilii, Epistle) (AA.SS. Sept 2 and Sept 28)

Elpidius, Martyr. Elpidius was sent, after Ephrem and Basileus, together with Eugenius, Agathodorus, and Capiton, by the bishop of Jerusalem, Hermon (302-312) to Cherson. The four missionaries were killed by the pagans.

Elpidius, St. He came, together with St. Aristaenetas, to Gaza round 400. (Apopht. ad Vitam S. Antonii Magni, c. VI, n. 43) (AA.SS. Jan 17)

Elpis (Hope), daughter of Sophia (Wisdom). The memory of the person Elpis is on Oct 25 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar.

Elyud, sister of Cain: see Cain.

Emerentiana, mother of Anna and grandmother of the Virgin Mary. No feast. Since the end of the 15th century, artists bring together a group of 4 persons: Emerentiana, Anna, Mary, Jesus.

Emilie de Vialar, St. She was born in 1797 at Gaillac in France. She died at Marseille on Aug 24, 1856. She founded in France in 1832 the Institut des Soeurs de St. Joseph de l'Apparition. These Sisters were called to Jerusalem by the Franciscan Custody. They erected a school at Jerusalem in 1848. Other foundations followed: Jaffa in 1849; Bethlehem in 1853; Ramallah in 1872; Ramla in 1873; Beit-Jala in 1875; Nazareth in 1887; Nablus in 1904; Abu-Ghosh in 1905. Soeur Emilie de Vialar lived in Jerusalem as local Superior and founded the school at Bethlehem in 1853. Her beatification was in 1939; her canonization in 1951. Her feast is on Aug 24.

Emirandus. He came to Palestine before 1000. (Vita S. Hugonis, c. IV, n. 24) (AA.SS. April 20)

Emir Azbach, Moudjir ed-Din. He wrote in a history of Jerusalem how the Christians built in 1489 on Mount Sion the oratory of the Virgin, with the help of money that was given by the Emirs and by others. On May 23, 1490 the Christians were forced to destroy their buildings.

Emireh. At the beginning of the 20th century a Lady Emireh (princess) began a building at the west end of the Mamillah-cemetery in Jerusalem to receive the 144000 marked on their forehead (Apc 7). It was only partly built. It has been removed by the Supermarket.

Emmanuel Ruiz and Companions, Blessed, Martyrs. The Druses made a revolt at Damascus in 1860. Among the victims 6 were Franciscan priests, 2 were lay brothers in the Franciscan Order. These 8 were killed, together with 3 Maronites, Jay men, on July 10, 1860. Pope Pius XI inscribed them on the list of the Blessed, in 1926.

Emmanuel Convent of the Benedictine Sisters at Bethlehem. They came from Loppem (Belgium), through their foundation in Algiers, to Bethlehem before 1967. They follow the Melkite liturgy.

Emmerich: see Catherine Emmerich

Empress of Abyssinia (= Ethiopia). She visited Jerusalem in 1933, with a daughter and a son, at the occasion of Easter. - The Emperor of Ethiopia, the Negus Salassie, with his eldest son and with his eldest daughter, had already visited the Holy Land some years before.

Emygdius, Sanctus. In 'Miracula S. Emygdii, n. 33' are mentioned Crusaders of the town of Asculum round 1096. (AA.SS. Aug 5)

Encaenia (= Dedication-festival) of Holy Churches. These 'Holy' Churches were the Martyrion (= Golgotha-Church) and the Anastasis (= Resurrection-Church). Martyrion and Anastasis are now included in the Basilica of the Resurrection (or Anastasis). Greek Synaxaries and Georgian liturgy have the dedication on Sept 13. - Aetheria, a nun who made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land about 385-388, describes the feast of the Encaenia at Jerusalem. It lasted eight days.

Eneas of Gaza. He wrote the dialogue Theophraste, he wrote also Letters. He was a disciple of the neo-platonist Jerocle in Alexandria. Eneas was in Constantinople before 484. The dialogue Theophraste was written before 534. Eneas directed a famous school in Gaza.

Enee, priest. He built in Jerash (East Jordan) in 494-499 the martyrion of Saint Theodore.

Enese, St. In the laura of Duq (Douka) on the Mount of Quarantine, Jebel Quruntal, Jebel ed Douq, near Jericho.

Engelbertus: see Kolland, martyr at Damascus in 1860.

Engelmarus, Blessed: Vita B. Engelmari, Nr 1: An eclipse on Sept 23, 1093, presages the first Crusade (1096-1099). (AA.SS. Jan 14).

England: A bishop of England met in Egypt Gerardus, a hermit of Cologne, round 1400. (J. Brugman, Vita S. Lidivinae, lib. III, c. VII, n. 228-236) (AA.SS. April 14)

Englishmen: Two Englishmen came to Palestine in the llth century. (S. Ealredus, Vita S. Edwardi, c. IX, n. 31) (AA.SS. Jan 5)

Ennata, St., Virgin and Martyr. She was burned alive in Caesarea, Palestine, in the time of Emperor Galerius Maximianus (305-311). Ennata was arrested together with Antonius, Zebinus and Germanus. They are venerated on Nov 13 in Mart. Rom.

Ennathas. See Mantho, virgin and martyr in Caesarea, Palestine, in 308 (Mart. Rom. Nov 13). Probably to be identified with Ennata.

Enoch. In the Cainite genealogy (Gen 4, 17ff) Enoch was the son of Cain. In the Sethite genealogy (Gen 5, 18-24) Enoch was the son of Jared and the father of Mathusaleh.

Enoch and the genealogy of Jesus in Luke 3, 37. The Greek liturgy mentions him among the forefathers of the Lord, on the Sunday between 11 and 17 December. The Copts venerate him on Jan 22 and July 19. The Syrians on July 7. Copts and Ethiopians consider Enoch as a Saint (Jan 22). Enoch and Elijah shall return in the last days, and they shall rebuke the false Christ. (Ethiopian Synaxarium, Ter 6)

Enoch's Ascension into heaven: It took place on the 25th day of the month Hamle (July 5 till August 3), according to the Ethiopian Synaxarium. The ascension of Enoch is also venerated on Ter 27. (Jan 6 - Feb 5).

Enoch, Sanctus, falsus patriarch of Jerusalem in Acre, died 1227. His feast is on Aug 12. (AA.SS.)

Enos. Enos was a grandson of Adam and Eve. The Ethiopians have a cult of Enos. The Ethiopian Syn. has on the sixth day of the month Tekemt (=second month: Oct 8 - Nov 6) the commemoration of Enos, the son of Seth, who was the first to call upon God. Enos lived 190 years and procreated Cainan. All the days of Enos were 620 years, and he died at the beginning of the Sabbath. (This paragraph is wanting in the Bodleian manuscript)

Enosh, son of Seth. Enosh is mentioned, together with Adam and Eve, and with his father Seth, in the martyrology of Rabban Sliba, in the week after Easter.

Enrico. He was a cantor and belonged to the clergy of the Latin diocese of Acre, in 1220.

Epaenetus (Epainetus), one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Carthage. He is listed in the Greek list of 70 disciples. He is not mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. In the Letter to the Romans Paul writes: 'Greet my beloved Epaenetus, who was the first convert for Christ in Asia' (Rom 16, 5) (Asia here means probably Ephesus). The Melkite liturgy has on July 30: Silas, Silvanus, Crescentius, Epaenetus, and Andronikus (all out of the 70 disciples).

Epaphroditus, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Andriace, Myra, Lycia, in the Greek list. The Roman Martyrology has on March 22: Epaphroditus in Tarracina, in Campania (Italy), who was appointed by St. Peter as bishop of Tarracina. Epaphroditus is also called Epaphroditus of Philippi. Indeed a Greek tradition says that he was bishop of Philippi. He is venerated on Dec 9.

Epaphroditus of Cyprus. He belonged to the three hundred Christians who settled in Cyprus coming from Germany (sic) and who suffered martyrdom in Cyprus. His feast is in the Greek liturgy on October 12. (compare: Constantine, martyr; Epiphanius)

Eparchius. Martyr, Mart. Rom. March 23. He was martyred in Caesarea, Palestine, together with Domitius, Pelagia, Aquila, Theodosius.

Ephesius, bishop, 4th century. He was sent from Rome by bishop Heraclides, to the convent of nuns, who lived in Eleutheropolis (Beit Gubrin in Palestine) under the direction of Hermione. Ephesius was welcomed in Eleutheropolis by the nuns and by the notables. Severus, one of the notables, asked Ephesius to visit his house.

Ephesus, seven sleepers at Ephesus who slept 372 years. They are mentioned in Greek Synaxaries, in the Martyrologium Romanum. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has their feast on April 18, on Aug 2, on Oct 4, on Nov 29.

Ephraim the Galilean. see Mercurius.

Ephraim the mosaicist in the year 6677 (= 1169 CE). An inscription in five lines in Greek and in Latin (in the apse of the choir) tells that the decoration of the Basilica of Nativity in Bethlehem was ended by Ephraim in the days of Emperor Manuel Porphyrogenete, of Amaury, king of Jerusalem, and under Raoul, bishop of Bethlehem.

Ephraim of Scythia. He lived in the 3rd century. He was commissioned by the Patriarch of Jerusalem to preach in Scythia, where he suffered martyrdom during the Diocletian persecution. He served as bishop of Cherson. The Greek liturgy venerates him on March 7.

Ephrem, archbishop of Jerusalem: in the church of the Disciples (=on Mount of Olives) on May 12 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. - Nothing is known about an Ephrem, archbishop of Jerusalem.

Ephrem, Saint, 13th bishop of Jerusalem, 2nd century. He is mentioned on Feb 1 and April 4 in Acta Sanctorum.

Ephrem of Cherson. He accompanied Basil (of Cherson). Ephrem was sent to Scythia by the bishop of Jerusalem, Hermon (302-312). The memory of Ephrem is on March 7 in the Greek liturgy. He is venerated with 7 other martyrs of Cherson, in the Synaxarium of Constantinople. - To be identified with Ephraim of Scythia?

Epiphanes, hermit: By a revelation in 351, Epiphanes found the relics of James, the Apostle, and of Symeon the Elder, and of Zacharias, the father of the Baptist, in the grotto that he occupied between the Mount of Olives and the pinnacle of the Temple.

Epiphanius in Cyprus. He was one of the three hundred Christians who settled in Cyprus, coming from Germany and who suffered martyrdom in Cyprus. The Greek liturgy has the feast on Oct 5. See also Epaphroditus

Epiphanius, St. Epiphanius, at the end of the 4th century, said that the house of St. Mark in Jerusalem had escaped destruction, together with seven churches and synagogues. (To be identified with Epiphanius of Salamis)

Epiphanius Hagiopolita, 9th century. He mentions Mount Karmel (he means Karem), which was the property of the family of John the Baptist. The site is 6 miles to the west of Jerusalem and 18 miles from Emmaus-Nicopolis. (Enarr. Syriae, P.G. 120, 263)

Epiphanius of Salamis, St. He was born in Besandue near Eleutheropolis, about 315 of a Jewish family. He converted to Christianity, he founded a monastery at Eleutheropolis (= Beit Gebrin) which he. directed for 30 years. In 367 he was consecrated bishop of Salamis in Cyprus. He was a defender of orthodoxy and opposed the teachings of Origen. Epiphanius went to Constantinople to support Theophilus of Alexandria against St. John Chrysostomus. On his return to Cyprus, Epiphanius died in 403. The Greek liturgy has his feast on May 12. - In the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, Epiphanius preached a sermon against the heretics. He was a famous writer. After the Council of Constantinople 1(381) Epiphanius journeyed to Rome, with St. Jerome and Paulinus to protest against the decisions of that Council. Between 387 and 393 Epiphanius travelled through Palestine with John of Jerusalem, and destroyed the painting of a holy image in a church in Jerusalem. (Mart. Rom. May 12). In the Palestinian-Georgian calendar his memory was kept in the Church of the Anastasis on May 13. The most famous work of Epiphanius is 'Panarion' (box with medicaments).

Epiphanius, a wrestler in Byzance. Before 632 he came to Palestine. (Vita S. Georgii Chozib., c. IV, n. 15-19) (Analecta Bollandiana, VII, 114-118)

Epiphany, 'the appearance of the Godhead'on the day in which our Lord Jesus Christ was baptized in the River Jordan by John the Baptist. The Ethiopian Synaxarium has the feast on Ter 11.

Erard of Brienne (in France). This count landed half September 1189 before Acre for the reconquest (1191) of Acre.

Erastus, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Caesarea Philippi (Banyas). The Byzantine liturgy has his feast on Nov 10. The Roman Martyrology has on July 26: Erastus at Philippi in Macedonia, who was there appointed as bishop by St. Paul and who was martyred there.

Ercolan of Piegale, confessor, Franciscan. He was born in Piegale, Toscana. In 1429 he came to the Holy Land, where he lived some months. In 1430 he was a mediator for peace between Florence and the city of Lucca. He died in the convent of Pieve on May 28, 1451. Pope Pius IX admitted him in 1860 to the list of the Blessed.

Ericus Bonus (Henry the Good), Rex Daniae (king of Denmark) in the first Crusade. (AA.SS. Jan 7) He came to Palestine between 1095 and 1103. He is also called Ericus 11.

Ernoul, knight of Balian of Ibelin. Ernoul wrote 'L’estat de la Citez de lhdrusalem' (1228).

Erodion: see Herodion, one of the 70 disciples.

Esau, brother of Jacob. Esau is not mentioned in the Ethiopian Synaxarium.

Esculo (Italy): see Belardo de Esculo.

Esdras: see Ezra, the scribe.

Esdras (Isidore), to whom John the Baptist appeared. He is commemorated on the 12th of Miyâzyâ (eighth month) in the Ethiopian Synaxarium.

Esparza: see Luigi Esparza (died 1825).

Esquiu Mamerto. He was bishop of Cordoba in Argentina. He lived some months in the Convent of St. John the Baptist in Ain-Karem in 1877. He belonged to the Franciscan Order. A commemoration stone with his bust is at the entrance of this convent. The process for his beatification is opened.

Esther, the heroine of the Book of Esther. The Hebrew maiden Hadassah, niece of Mordecai, was chosen as queen for Ahasuerus, king of Persia. Esther saved the Jewish community from persecution. This victory of the Jews is celebrated by the feast of Purim. In the liturgy queen Esther is remembered on July 1. The Copts venerate her on Dec 20. In the Greek liturgy, Esther is mentioned by name among the 'just of the Old Testament'.

Etheria: see Aetheria

Ethiopian, who never ceased to weep. In the Byzantine period (4th - 7th century) a stranger, usually an Ethiopian, addresses himself to a worthy villager and says: 'I am the man who struck the Creator of the World in the time of His suffering. And, therefore, 1 must never cease to weep. ' Moschus related the story in his Lemonarium.

Euboulos of Caesarea, martyr. He was from Baniyas, like Adrianus. From Baniyas, he went to Caesarea, Palestine. There he was arrested by the Governor Firmilianus, and finally beheaded on March 7, 309, two days after Adrianus. Eubolus was the last of the martyrs of Caesarea in Palestine. In the Greek Church his feast is on Feb 3. In the Roman Church the feast is on March 7.

Eudes de Montbéliard. In 1239 he had the provisory possession of Tiberias, on account of a treaty concluded with Melek Saleh, who was sultan of Damascus, against the sultan of Egypt. But five years later in 1244 the sultan of Egypt with the help of the Kharismians conquered Tiberias and killed the Christians.

Eudes de Montfaucon. This Templar Knight was killed in 1138 in a battle against the Turcomans between Jebel el-Fureidis (Herodium) and Hebron.

Eudes de Trazignies. In the autumn of 1191 he fought near Betenoble (Beit Nuba) near Latrun. He was saved by the help of Richard I (Richard Lion-hearted). The army of Richard passed Christmas 1191 at Beit Nuba, without conquering Jerusalem.

Eudocia, the Younger. She was the grand-daughter of Eudocia Augusta, the Empress. She was born about 439 and married to Hunneric who was the son of Genseric, king of the Vandals. Eudocia fled from Carthage and came to Jerusalem. There she died and she was buried in the Basilica of St. Stephen which had been erected by her grandmother, Eudocia the Empress. The memory of Eudocia, the Younger, is on Sept 10 in the lectionary of Paris.

Eudocia Augusta (Athenais), Eudocia the Elder, Eudocia the Empress, Eudocia, widow of Emperor Theodosius II. She was born in Athens in 401 as the daughter of Leontius the Sophist. Pulcheria, sister of Theodosius, selected her as wife for her brother. Athenais was baptized and she changed her name to Eudocia, and she married Emperor Theodosius II (408-450) in 421. She fell from favour, largely because of Pulcheria. Eudocia withdrew to Jerusalem where she devoted herself to literature. She built in Jerusalem the church of St. Stephen, north of the walls, and she transferred in 439 the relics of St. Stephen from the Mount of Sion to this newly built church. She died at Jerusalem on Oct 20, 460. - It is related that she brought the chains of St. Peter from Jerusalem to Europe. A fifth-century testimony reports a pilgrimage of over 100, 000 (?) Jews, which was made possible as a result of the sympathetic attitude of Athenais Eudocia. She is not listed in the Roman Martyrology. Her memory in the Greek church is on June 15 and on October 19. Eudocia the Elder was twice in the Holy Land: first in 438-439 a second time in 444.

Eudocia seu Febronia, daughter of the Emperor Heraclius. She was betrothed to a Turkish prince, and therefore she was denied to the count Humarus, round 635.

Eudokia, the Penitent. She was born in Heliopolis (= Baalbek) in Lebanon, and lived during the reign of Emperor Trajan (98-117). She led a life of sin. She was converted by Germanos, a monk. She sold her properties and entered the monastic life. She became the head of the convent, performing many miracles. About 114 she was brought before Vicentius the Governor and she suffered martyrdom. The Greek Synaxaries have the feast on March 1. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar venerates her on March 1.

Eudokia Samaritana of Hieropolis, martyr. Her feast is on March 1. Probably to be identified with Eudokia the Penitent. -The Ethiopian Synaxarium has her feast on the fifth day of the month Magabit (seventh month: March 7 - April 5). Eudokia Samaritana was beheaded under the governor Bakinikos, who was the successor of governor Diogenes. The title 'Samaritana' recalls her former life in prostitution and lewdness. She lived probably in the reign of Trajanus (98-117). Her fathers name was Yonas.

Eudokius, St. Martyr. His feast was on April 28.

Eudoxia Empress, widow of Emperor Theodosius II. She constructed a tower on the summit of Mount Muntar in order to be able to confer with St. Euthymius who brought her back from Monophysitism to the Orthodox faith. Eudoxia Augusta (the Venerable) is mentioned in AA.SS. on Aug 13, in 438/439.

Eudoxia, martyr. Jan 31 and June 28.

Eudoxius, hegumenos of the monastery of Nea in Jerusalem. He is mentioned by John Moschus in Pratum Spirituale, Nr 187. Eudoxius was succeeded by hegumenos Abramios

Eugene. This monk was buried in a catacomb near the Well of David in Bethlehem. At this site was a Byzantine convent with a church between the fourth and the sixth century.

Eugène Roger de Paris. He was the counselor of Emir Fakreddin in 1620. He wrote ': 'in Nazareth there are 10 or 12 Franciscans, most of them Frenchmen'.

Eugenio de San Francisco, Spanish. He came two times to the Holy Land: first in 1683, the second time in 1703. He wrote 'Itinerario y segunda peregrinacion de Jerusalem' (Editio Sevilla, 1712). (Arce A. Un itinerario a Jerusalem de 1703/04. Jerusalem, 1940)

Eugenius. He was the very religious hegumenos of the monastery of S. Sergius. This site had the surname of Xerapotamos 'dry river' (John Moschus, Pratum Spirituale, PG 87, 3053). The monastery of S. Sergius was on the hill of Tantur north of Bethlehem.

Eugenius of Cherson, martyr. St. Greek Liturgy: March 7. Eugenius was sent by the bishop of Jerusalem, Hermon (302-312) to convert Scythia and Cherson. Eugenius was sent together with Agathodorus, Capiton, and Elpidius. The four were killed by the pagans. (Compare: Ephrem of Cherson)

Eulampios of Palestine. He was born in Palestine, and he suffered martyrdom, together with Eulogius of Palestine. The Greek liturgy has the feast of both martyrs on March 5.

Eulogia. She was the mother of St. Theodosius, the Coenobiarch, and lived in the middle of the 5th century in Palestine.

Eulogius, martyr. His feast is on April 28.

Eulogius of Palestine. His feast is on March 5. He was born in Palestine, and he suffered martyrdom in Palestine, together with Eulampios of Palestine.

Eunuphrius. see Onuphrius.

Euodus, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Antioch, in the Greek list.
- The Roman Martyrology does not name Euodus.

Euphemia, St. She is venerated together with Thecla, in the Church of the Resurrection, on Oct 10, according to the lectionary of Paris. She was venerated also on Dec 12 in the foundation of St. John. - During the 4th Council (Council of Chalcedon in 451) which was held against the Monophysites Eutyches and Dioscorus, the fathers of the Council placed their scripts in the relic-shrine of St. Euphemia. After three days of fasting and prayer, the script of the Orthodox believers was found in the right hand of the corpse, the script of the heretics was lying at the feet of the saint. The memory of this intervention is remembered by the Greek-Melkite liturgy on July 11; in the Roman Martyrology on Sept 16.

Euphemianus, archbishop. His memory was kept in the Church of the Apostles on Nov 7, according to the Palestinian calendar.

Euphrosyne (Euphrosynia) of Polotsk. This Russian princess and pilgrim died in the convent Deir Dosi, east of Bethlehem, on May 23, 1173. When dying, she applied to the Abbot of Saint Sabas as the chief Orthodox ecclesiastic to find for her a suitable burial place. In 1187 her relics were brought to her country, Russia. (Khitrovo, Pèlerinage en Palestine de l'Abbesse Euphrosyne, Revue de l'Orient Latin, vol. VIll, p. 32-35) - AA.SS. May 23: Euphrosyne was the daughter of the count of Polotsk.

Euphrosyne of Alexandria, St., daughter of Paphnutius, Feb 15 and Feb 17. In the Byzantine Church her feast is on July 25. In the Martyrologium Romanum her deposit in Alexandria is remembered on Jan 1. Euphrosyne died round 470. According to tradition, she lived in the habit of a monk, for 38 years in a convent of monks in Alexandria under the name Smaragidus. Before her death she revealed her sex to Paphnutius (Paphnutis).

Euprepius, St., unmercenary saint of Arabia. He is mentioned, together with Anthimus and Leontius, on the same date (Oct 17) by the Greek Synaxaries. On this date are also SS. Cosmas and Damian.

Eusebius, bishop. Nov 24 in the Georgian calendar. A Syriac calendar has the martyrs Eusebius and Lucius on Nov 26. (Patr. 0r. X, 1, p. 48) This Eusebius is not identified.

Eusebius, builder of El-Khader. He built in 684 a chapel and a hermitage at EI-Khader, south of Bethlehem. Elias, patriarch (?) of Jerusalem, extended both buildings in 731. The church was restored in 1897. The icon of St. George on the south wall of the church dates from 1713. El Khader belongs to the Greek Orthodox community.

Eusebius, Carmelite. He is mentioned on June 10, 12th/13th century in Acta Sanctorum.

Eusebius, martyr. Together with Neon, Leontius, Longinus, he witnessed the martyrdom of St. George of Lydda and was converted. Subsequently, Eusebius was beheaded during the persecution of Emperor Diocletian (284-313). The Greek liturgy has his feast on April 24.

Eusebius and Zenon of Gaza, martyrs. Eusebius lived at Gaza and suffered there martyrdom at the hands of the crowd. Zenon, a relative of Eusebius, became bishop of Gaza during the reign of Theodosius the Great (379-395) and built a church in honour of Eusebius. The Greek liturgy has the memory on Sept 21. - The Roman Martyrology has the commemoration of Eusebius, Nestabus, Zenon on Sept 8. They were brothers and were killed by the crowd in Gaza during the reign of Emperor Julian the Apostate (355-363).

Eusebius, episcopus Caesareae Maritimae (fictitious). (Vita S. Emerici) 1031, Feast Nov 4. (AA.SS.)

Eusebius, Nestabas, Zeno at Nestor, martyrs at Gaza in 362. Sept 8. (AA.SS.)

Eusebius in Phoenicia. 1st-4th century, Sept 21 in Acta Sanctorum.

Eusebius of Caesarea, Palestine. He is not canonized. He was bishop, and the was the earliest Church historian. He was born round 260, he died round 339. It was at Caesarea, Palestine, that he was baptized as an adult, and entered the ranks of the clergy. His friend was Pamphilus, who also collected a library. Eusebius adopted the name EUSEBIUS PAMPHILI, i.e. the son or the servant of Pamphilus and it was by this name that he was commonly designated. Eusebius was himself at times away from Caesarea, for exemple at Tyre and in Egypt. At Caesarea itself, he witnessed martyrdoms. The imprisonment in 308 and the martyrdom in 310 of Pamphilus deeply affected him. At the Council of Antioch (round 324) Eusebius and two others were provisionally excommunicated for their adherence to Arian views. Their case was referred to a great council called to meet at Ancyra; but Emperor Constantine 1 changed the venue of the council to Nicaea in 325. After this council Eusebius explained in a letter to his own church what had happened. Eusebius was dead by the time of the Council of Antioch in 341. His life, written by Acacius, who was his pupil and successor at Caesarea, is not extant.

Eusebius of Cremona (Italy), St. He came to Palestine in 394, and was abbot of the monastery that was built by St. Paula in Bethlehem, near the Grotto of Nativity. Eusebius died in 422. The Franciscan Community of Bethlehem keeps his feast on March 6. The AA.SS. mention Eusebius on March 5 and on Sept 30. (Vita S. Eusebii, auctore Fr. Ferrario)

Tomb of Eusebius. Eusebius succeeded St. Jerome as superior of his monastery. The tomb of Eusebius is shown in the narrow passage that leads to a grotto where is the common tomb of SS. Paula and Eustochium and facing it the tomb of St. Jerome.

Eusebius of Emesa (= Horns). He was a bishop and a writer, he was born at Edessa, round 300. He died in Antioch, before 359. He was educated in Edessa, Scythopolis, Caesarea of Palestine, Alexandria, and Antioch. Eusebius was chosen by the Arians to rule the see of Alexandria in 340, but knowing the attachment of the people to the exiled Athanasius,, he declined. Shortly afterwards Eusebius became bishop of Emesa (= Homs)in Syria. There he was accused of astrology and later of Sabellianism. Resigning his see, he accompanied the Emperor Constantius on an expedition against the Persians round 348, some years before his death. In his writings Eusebius of Emesa depends on Eusebius of Caesarea.

Eusebius of Gaza, St., Martyr. Together with his brothers Nestabas (Nestabus) and Zeno(n) he was martyred under Julian the Apostate (355-363). The feast is on April 26 in the Palestinian calendar; Greek Synaxaries have the feast on Sept 21.

Eusebius, Sanctus, Samosatenus. The AA.SS. (June 22) tell that Eusebius of Samosate visited Palestine round 375. (Vita S. Eusebii, ex Theodoreto, lat. vers. IV, c. 12)

Eusebius, St., bishop of Vercelli, confessor. His memory is on Aug 1 in Mart. Rom. In 335 Eusebius was exiled by the Emperor Constantius to the East. He came to Scythopolis (Beth-Shean) in Palestine. After the death of Emperor Constantius, Eusebius was set at liberty under Emperor Julian (355-363) and in 362 attended the Council of Alexandria with Athanasius and approved its lenient decisions for the reconciliation of compromised bishops. Eusebius returned to Italy and cooperated with Hilary of Poitiers against the Arians. Eusebius died peacefully in his own diocese at Vercelli, on Aug 1, 371. Feast is on Dec 13. A memory is on Aug 1 in Mart. Rom.

Eusebius Vercellensis et Gaudentius Novariensis, are mentioned in AA.SS. on Jan 22 (round 355-368). (Vita S. Gaudentii, c. II, n. 7)

Eusebius, Theodosius, Basilius: Patriarchs of Jerusalem 760. 772. (AA.SS. Maii III, Prop., XXXVII-XXXIX) (AA.SS. June 26 and Oct 4).

Eusignios of Antioch, St., Martyr. He was born in Antioch, Syria, and was martyred in Antioch under Emperor Julian the Apostate (361-363) about 362. He served a long time in the imperial armies. He proclaimed before Julian the virtues of Constantine the Great, who for a long period (309-337) had ruled the empire. Emperor Julian the Apostate mocked the words of Eusignios and beheaded him. The Melkite liturgy has his memory on August 5. The Armenian church has Eusignios, martyr of Antioch, on Feb 5, on Aug 5 and on Aug 7. The Ethiopian Synaxarium has his feast on Ter 5: 'Salutation to Eusignios, who interpreted the mystery of the Cross to the Emperor Constantine'. Perhaps to be identified with Eusignius, St. Martyr at Gaza.

Eusignius, St., Martyr at Gaza. The martyrs at Gaza, Eulogius, Zeno(n), Nestabus and Eusignius and Neon and Eudocius were remembered at April 28.

Eustace, brother of Godfrey, returned after 1099 to Boulogne.

Eustace, monk. He lived in the laura of Douk (Duq) near Jericho.

Eustachius, architect of Constantine for the Holy Sepulchre.

Eustachius, prior Hebron (falsus), 1221.
AA.SS. Aug 14.

Eustathius of Antioch, patriarch. He was born at Side in Pamphylia. Round 325 he was patriarch of Antioch. He was deposed in 330 by the Synod of Antioch, and exiled. He died before 337 in Thracia. The Roman Martyrology has him on July 16; the Eastern churches on Feb 21, on June 5, on Aug 23.

Eustathius, a teacher of the faith. His father took him to the monastery of Abba Zacharias, who was his mother's brother. Eustathius was ordained a priest. He went to Jerusalem and kept the Sabbath during his travels. He came to the Archbishop Abba Benyami and was bathed in the Jordan. Thence he departed to Armenia. He was buried in the Church Mar Mehnem (this means Behnam) the Martyr. Eustathius crossed the sea on his head-band. He is saluted in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 18th day of the month Maskaram.

Eustathius and his wife, Theopista, and their two sons, Theopistus and Agapius: Their martyrdom happened in Rome under Emperor Hadrian (117-138). The memory of the four martyrs is in the Roman Martyrology on Sept 20. They have a memory on Nov 9 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar, in the Church of the Resurrection.

Eustathus. This heretic monk-priest was in possession of the head of John the Baptist. He had the relic hidden in his grotto. There the relic was discovered by the archimandrite Marcellus, under Emperor Marcianus (450-457). (Greek liturgy on Feb, 24; Ethiopian Synaxarium on Yakatit 30)

Eusthonus, bishop of Sebaste in Palestine. He identified the bones of St. Stephen in Kafargamala in 415. (Compare: Eleutherus)

Eustochium, St., virgin. The feast is on Sept 28 in Mart. Rom. In 383 Jerome (St.) travelled to Rome and there he became secretary to Pope Damasus I. Jerome directed a group of noble women on the Aventine. Among these women was Paula with her daughters Blesilla and Eustochium. The accusation that the harsh ascetical advice of Jerome had caused the death of Blesilla, destroyed his hope of succeeding Damasus (died 384) as pope. Jerome then departed for Palestine with his brother Paulinian and some monks in August 385. Jerome visited Crete and Antioch; then with Paula and a group of Roman women toured the deserts of Egypt and Palestine. He settled in Bethlehem in 386, where Paula built a double monastery. Jerome then entered cordial relations with Melania the Elder in Jerusalem and embarked upon his scriptural exegesis. There ensued a quarrel over Origen. In this quarrel bishop John of Jerusalem deprived Jerome and his monastery of spiritual assistance. Eustochium died in 419 as a nun in the monastery of Bethlehem, that had been founded by her mother Paula. Eustochium was buried near the tomb of her mother, who had died there on Jan 26, 404. The bronze doors of the Latin Parish Church of St. Catherine in Bethlehem have reliefs of St. Jerome, SS. Paula and Eustochium. The neuter name Eustochium indicates that she was not born in freedom, but in slavery.

Eustochius, archpriest. Eustochius became patriarch of Jerusalem in December 552 and was deposed in 5631564. Only the Georgian liturgy accepted Eustochius in the liturgical calendar, on Sept 14. He is mentioned in May in Acta Sanctorum.

Eustratius. He is commemorated by the Greek Synaxaries on Nov 2. He belongs to a group of Martyrs, together with Atticus, Eudoxius, and others.

Euthyme. There is a Georgian Life of SS. Jean and Euthyme (died 1128?) See Elijah, Ascension of Elijah.

Euthymius the Great, Euthymius Magnus, Saint. He was born in Melitene in Armenia in 377, and became a priest and supervisor of the monastic settlements there. At the age of thirty, he went to Palestine and lived in the wilderness of Judaea. First he was in the laura of Chariton in Wadi Farah, then in Wadi Mukelik, afterwards between Hebron and the Dead Sea. The Arabs respected him because he healed the paralytic son of a sheikh. He converted Aspebet-Petrus to christianity. Euthymius and Petrus had built a monastery in 428. It was consecrated in 429 by Juvenal, the bishop of Jerusalem. Eusebius was consulted by Eudocia, the widow of Emperor Theodosius II. Eusebius died in Palestine at the age of 97 years on Jan 20, 473. His corpse was brought, three months later, on May 7, 473 to a funeral chapel, which had been constructed by his disciple and successor Fidus, who changed the laura in a monastery. This monastery was consecrated by the bishop of Jerusalem, Martyrios, on May 7, 482. - Euthymius is called the Wonderworker, the Godbearer (Thaumaturgus, Theophorus). The Georgian calendar has his feast on Jan 20. The Roman Martyrology also on Jan 20. Cyril of Scythopolis wrote 'Vita Euthymii'.

Euthymius' Convent in Jerusalem: Princess Anna, daughter of Emperor Alexis Comnenos, rebuilt in Jerusalem in 11297(?) the convent of St. Euthymius. The convent was erected in the 6th century.

Euthymius' Convent in Khan-el-Ahmar: This monastery was built by Euthymius and by Aspebet-Petrus, in 428. The monastery was conquered by the Persians in 614. It was repaired, it was damaged by an earthquake in 659. The archaeologist Chitty identified the ruins in 1927-1930. The archaeologist Yannis Meimaris made excavations in 1975.

Euthymius, monk. He is mentioned in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Nov 23. Perhaps to be identified with Euthymius the Great, the Wonderworker.

Euthymius, presbyter. See Euthymius Magnus, the Great.

Eutichius, Carmelite. The AA.SS. mention him on Oct 17, round the 12th/13th century.

Eutropia and Abraham's oak in Mamre. She was the mother-in-law of Constantine, she made a pilgrimage to Mamre (Mambre) which is about 6 kms. north of Hebron. Eutropia was shocked by the superstitious practices, which took place under Abraham's oak. She informed her son-in-law, the Emperor Constantine (306-337). He ordered a house of prayer in honour of the most Holy Trinity to be erected there. Remains of this Byzantine basilica are still visible in Mamre.

Eutropius. He founded in the 5th/6th century, the monastery of the eunuchs near Jericho. (Epistola Pauli Helladici, monachi Elusae) (Analecta Bollandiana, XI, 477)

Eutyches, abbot of Constantinople, heretic.
He is considered the father of Monophysitism. He was born round 375, he was condemned by the Council of Chalcedon in 451, he died in 454. Eutyches refused to acknowledge that there are two natures in Christ.

Eutyches, St., bishop of Melitene in Armenia. According to the mendes (= book of months) St. Eutyches was a disciple of the Apostles. The Melkite liturgy has his memory on May 28.

Eutyches of Sebaste in Armenia, martyr. He belongs to the 40 martyrs of Sebaste in Armenia. His memory is on March 9.

Eutychis. See Aurelius (in the mines of Timna).

Eutychius. He is mentioned among the 70 disciples, and he is called martyr. (PG CXVII, 602) He followed St. John the Apostle, and was baptized by him. He returned to Sebaste, his native town, and it was there he died. The Melkite liturgy has his feast on Aug 24. Eutychius, who was called the 'Companion of John the Evangelist': He is saluted by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the first day of the intercalary month, Paguemen (Sept 3 to Sept 7).

Eutychius, patriarch of Alexandria. His Arabic name is Sa'id ibn Batrik. Perhaps he is to be identified with Pseudo-Petrus of Sebaste. (Oriens Christianus, 1911, p. 227) Eutychius died in 939. He wrote about the churches of the Holy Land. His book 'Annals' written in Arabic, was translated by Pococke.

Eve, the mother of mankind. She is remembered on Dec 24, together with her man, Adam.

Evagre, Frère (1831-1914), provincial des Frères des Ecoles Chrétiennes de Palestine et Syria. In 1876, he began under Patriarch Bracco and with the cooperation of Custos Gaudenzio the education at Jerusalem. On Oct 15, 1878 he opened the new college on the ground which he had received from the Latin Patriarchate. Evagre died at Bethlehem in 1914. In 1977 the Frères des Ecoles Chrétiennes celebrated the centenary of their college at Jerusalem.

Evangelists, tour: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John. Their memory is in the Church of the Resurrection on June 12.

Evarist, St., pope from 99 to 107(?). His feast is on Oct 26 in Mart. Rom. - According to Irenaeus, Evarist succeeded Clement 1 as pope. The Liberian catalogue and other sources list Evarist after Anacletus. A 6th-century recension of the Liber Pontificalis describes him as a Greek of Antioch. His father, Juda, was a native of Bethlehem. The Liber Pontificalis ascribes to Evarist the appointment of clergy to the 25 parishes of Rome. His episcopacy of Rome lasted 7, 8, or 9 years according to Eusebius; 9 or 13 years according to different recensions of the Liber Pontificalis. The tradition that he was martyred under Emperor Trajan (98-117) is doubtful because of the silence of Irenaeus on this matter.

Evaristus, St., martyr in 303 at Caesarea, Palestine. Together with his sister Fortunata, and his brothers Carponius and Priscianus. Oct 14 in Martyrologium Romanum.

Evodius. He wrote 'Acta XLII (=42) martyrum sub Saracenis'. He mentions the war of the Greeks against the Saracens, round 840. The AA.SS. mention Evodius on March 6 and on Nov 4.

Evodius of Antioch, bishop, Apostle, one of the 70 disciples. Tradition says that he was ordained bishop by St. Peter. Evodius is mentioned in the liturgy on April 28 and 29, on Sept 7, on June 30.

Evurtius, Saint. He sent men of 0rléans (Aurelianenses) to Palestine, round 330. (Lucifer, Vita S. Evurth, c. II, n. 13) (AA.SS. Sept 7)

Excustodianus of Ephesus. He belonged to the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus. They are venerated as martyrs on July 27.

Eysteinn, pilgrim. An inscription that was discovered in the 19th century in Sästad (Upland in Sweden) mentions Eysteinn. He died in Greece, on his return from the Holy Land. The funeral monument was erected by his wife Astridr. (Dybeck, Svenska Run-Urkunder, 11, p. 37-46)

Ezekiel, St., Prophet. To Ezekiel is attributed the third of the books of the four Major Prophets. According to his memory on April 10 in the Roman Martyrology, Ezekiel was martyred during the exile in Babylon by a judge of the people of Israel, because he was accused of idolatry. Ezekiel was a priest, the son of Buzi, and he lived by the river (canal) Chebar in Babylonia (Ezk 1, 3). He was married and the death of his wife is related in 24, 16. The earliest date mentioned in the book Ezekiel is 593 BC and the latest is 571 BC. Ezekiel was one of those deported by Nebuchadnezzar to Babylon in 597 BC. - Greek Synaxaries have the feast on July 30, July 31, Oct 15. The Melkite liturgy has the feast on July 23. - 'Salutation to the vision of Ezekiel’ on the 27th of Hamle (= the eleventh month: July 5-Aug 3) in the Ethiopian Synaxarium.

Ezius. He was bishop of Eleutheropolis in Palestine. He assisted at the Council of Antioch in 341, and at the Council of Sardes in 347.

Ezra, Prophet. His memory, together with Joel, is on July 13 in the Mart. Rom. Ezra was a priest and scribe, a member of the Jewish community in Babylon. He went to Jerusalem in the 7th year of the Persian king Artaxerxes (Ezr 7, 7). In Jerusalem Ezra proclaimed the 'law' which was written in a book, while the scribes explained the law to the people (Neh 8, 1-9). The reading of the law was followed by the feast of Tabernacles. - Josephus tells us that Ezra is buried in Jerusalem. Petrus Diaconus (114, 13 f) indicates the hamlet Asoa (22 kms northeast from Beit-Gibrin) as the burial-place. The generally accepted version is that the tomb of Ezra is situated at Uzer, a village near Basra. - The Ethiopian Church venerates Ezra as a saint. The 'Ascension of the body of Ezra Behêr, (= the scribe) is mentioned on the 6th day of the month Hamle (=the eleventh month, July 5-Aug 3) in the Ethiopian Synaxarium. See: Sûtûël.

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