A. Mertens, "Who was a Christian in the Holy Land?" - Encyclopedia

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Bab (Bab-el-Din). The Bab (it means Gate) was born in Shiraz (Iran) as Mirza Ali Muhammed in 1819, and at an early age started preaching the coming of a new religion. He called himself Bab-el-Din (Gate of the Faithful) and heralded the eminent appearance of a man who would found the new faith. Bab was executed by a firing squad in Tabriz (Iran) in 1850. He is buried in Haifa. December 24 is considered as the birthday of the Bab.

Babyla, patriarch of Antioch and his three sons. The anniversary was first recalled at Jan 24 (calendrier syriaque de 411); the Greek synaxaries commemorate him on Sept 4; the calendar of the Georgians on Jan 15. Martyred in 2501251.

Babylas, bishop of Antioch, and his (?) three sons, martyrs. The feast is on Sept 4. The names of his (?) three sons are: Urbanus, Prilidanus, Epolonius. The martyrdom was in 2501251 under Decius.

Bacchus, who was martyred under emir Harthama. He was called Bacchus, the Younger, and was a monk in St. Sabas. Before his baptism he was called dahhak 'the laugher'. He was beheaded at Jerusalem by the Moslems during the reign of Emperor Constantine and Irena (780-797), under the patriarch of Jerusalem Elias II in 7861787. The Greek synaxaries have his feast on Dec 15. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar commemorates him on April 11, and names the emir Harthama.

Badilo, monachus Viziliacensis (Vézelay in France). He came to Palestine in the 11th century. (AA.SS. July 22)

Bafulo Bernardo. This Franciscan Father went to the Holy Land round 123711245 (Salimbene 612-613).

Bagratuni Smbat. He was an Armenian general under the Persian ruler, Chosroas II.

Baha' Ullah (Glory of God). He was born a Persian nobleman, Mirza Hussein Ali. In 1863 he proclaimed that he was the universal prophet whose coming the Bab had foretold. He, too, was declared a heretic and spent most of his life in exile and in prison. He was brought to Acre in 1868 and died in prison there in 1892. He is buried in Acre; the Bab is buried in Haifa. December 25 is considered as the birthday of Baha' Ullah. This day is considered a holyday in the calendar of the Bahai-religion.

Bahlavouni Krikor. This Armenian Catholicos attended a synod in the Cenacle in 1142. (Guillaume de Tyr, T. II, Livre 15, XVIII, pp 73-74).

Baier, Dr. He was the physician of Maximilian, Duke in Bavaria during his visit to the Holy Land in May 1838. Dr. Baier died from the pest at Nazareth on May 23, 1838.

Bain Nisbet. He gives an Armenian description of the Holy Places in the 7th century. (Palestine Exploration Fund, 1896, pp 346)

Balaam: a seer of Pethor, who was summoned by Balak, king of Moab, to curse the Israelites. (Num 22, 5) Balaam held a conversation with his ass and he praised Israel. A later tradition tells how he counseled the Moabites to seduce the Israelites to the worship of the Baal of Peor, and for this he was executed by the Israelites (Num 31, 8-16; Jos 13, 22). Balaam is mentioned as a teacher of false doctrine in 2 Petrus 2, 16; Jude 11; Apc 2, 14. - The Ethiopian church mentions Balaam on the 12th of Magabit (the 7th month: March 7-April 5).

Balan: The Ethiopian Synaxarium has on Mask. 22: 'And on this day is commemorated Balan'.

Balata. The name of Salome, the sister of the Virgin Mary. She accompanied Mary on the flight to Egypt. This flight is mentioned in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 24th of the month Genbot the ninth month, May 6- June 4).

Baldasar Monconys. A friend of Baldasar Monconys is the last pilgrim who relates in his diary of having celebrated the liturgy in the Latin chapel in the Monastery of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai in 1674.

Baldi Donato, Italian, Franciscan Father. Died in Jerusalem in 1965. He wrote 'Guida di Terra Santa' and other books

Baldus, St. (Bondus, St) AA.SS.: Oct 29: he came to Palestine round 565.

Baldwin I, the younger brother of Godfrey of Bouillon. Baldwin was the first King of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, he was sacred on Dec 25, 1100 at Bethlehem. He died, without a heir, at EI Arish in 1118 April 2. He was buried opposite his brother Godfrey, in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, in the place where is since 1810 the northern vertical staircase that leads up to Golgotha. At the construction of this staircase the memorial of Baldwin and the memorial of Godfrey were removed.

Baldwin II, or Baldwin de Bourg (1118-1131). He was a cousin of Baldwin I. Baldwin II was elected king of Jerusalem at Easter 1118 in Jerusalem. After 13 years of ruling he died in Jerusalem on Aug 21, 1131, without having a heir.

Baldwin III, king of Jerusalem (1143-1162). He was the son of Fulk of Anjou. Baldwin became king at the age of 13 years. He was born in the Holy Land. He died in 1162. He was succeeded by his brother Amalric I.

Baldwin IV, king of Jerusalem (1174-1185). At 13 years he became

king. He was a leper. He won the battle of EI Arish against Saladin, who invaded from Egypt. Baldwin died, probably on March 16, 1185 at the age of 24 years.

Baldwin V, king of Jerusalem. This child lived from 1183 to 1186.

Baldwin I (First Emperor of the Latin Kingdom of Constantinople). In November 1199 Baldwin of Flanders took the Cross. He was with Theobald of Champagne, who was the leader of this fourth crusade. In March 1204 the crusaders stormed Constantinople, and Baldwin was made the first Emperor of the Latin Kingdom of Constantinople which lasted from 1204 to 1261. In 1206 he fought against the Bulgars (AA.SS. Oct 21). He died in battle near Adrianopolis.

Baldwin I, King (1951) of Belgium and Queen Fabiola. They came by plane to Amman on Friday, Feb 14, 1964. They visited the Old City of Jerusalem on Feb 15. They visited Nazareth on Monday, Feb 17, 1964.

Balfour Arthur James. (1848-1930). British statesman, signatory of the Balfour Declaration. This British declaration of sympathy with Zionist aspirations appeared on Nov 2, 1917. It favoured the establishment in Palestine of a National Home for the Jewish people, without prejudice to the non-Jewish communities. Balfour opened the Hebrew University on Mount Scopus in 1925.

Balthasar, one of the three Kings (Magi). In the calendar of Koeln his death is mentioned on Jan 11. The 3 kings represented 3 continents: Europe, Africa, Asia. Balthasar (later Caspar), the black king, figured for Africa. The number 3 is related to the 3 kinds of gifts: gold, incense, and myrrhe. The number 3 is related with 3 biblical races (3 sons of Noah): Sem for Semites (Asians); Cham for Chamites (Africans); Japhet for Japhetites (Europeans). The names (Balthasar, Melchior, Caspar) date from the 9th century. The king of the negroes appears in the 12th century; the crowns date from the 10th century. - In the literature it was first Balthasar who figured for the king of the Moors; later Caspar figured for the king of the Moors. Balthasar is now for the Japhetites.

Banayot Harris, Reverend. He died in 1922 in Bethlehem. He tells: 'Women's Cavern' means Milk Grotto in Bethlehem.

Baniuls Isidor. This Franciscan priest during a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, was murdered by Greek pirates in 1833.

Barabba: In the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Feb 12. Nothing is known about Barabba.

Barachos, bishop of Bakatha. He had the direction over the works at the Nea Church in Jerusalem during its construction (531 till the dedication, in November 543). Bakatha is localised in the country of Philadelphia(= Amman).

Barbara, St. She is venerated on 3 and 4 December, in the Georgian liturgy; the Greek liturgies have her feast on Dec 4. In the general Roman Catholic Church her feast (Dec 4) has been omitted from the list since the reform of the liturgy. On Dec 4 the Roman Church has now the feast of John Damascenus, priest and doctor of the Church. - The Georgian liturgy has a second Barbara on the octave of Barbara, on Dec 11.

Shrine of Barbara. On a hill to the west of the village Abud is the shrine of Barbara. It is reverenced by Christians and Moslems. There are remains of a church of the 6th century.

Barberia: see Bareria, virgin.

Barby; see Burchard of Barby.

Barclay, Barclay's Gate. This English archaeologist of the 19th century discovered an underground gate to the Temple from the West. Barclay's Gate is also named Bab el Magharibah (Gate of the West). Actually Barclay's Gate can be seen in the Mosque el Burak.

Barclay: He was the Anglican bishop (1879-1881) of Jerusalem. He was, only in 1887, succeeded by Blyth.

Bardulio: see Pietro Bardullo.

Bareria, virgin. Together with Maria, Martha, Kyria and Marcia, she was converted and adopted the ascetic life. When the governor of Caesarea heard about them, they were tortured and killed in 304. The Martyrology has a feast on June 5: there are mentioned Zenaidis, Cyria, Valeria, Marcia. - Bareria is not mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. The Greek liturgy has the feast of Bareria on June 6.

Barichas, priest. He is mentioned in the inscription of el-Mehayet. (Revue Biblique, 1914, p. 1 13). Khirbet Mehayet (Mehayiet) is some 5 kms to the west-north-west of Madaba. The inscription reads: 'Under bishop John, this holy place was founded and finished by priest Barichas, who served in it, in the month of November, at the time of the sixth indiction'.

Baripsaba, hermit, martyr, Sept 10. According to a legend Baripsaba collected the Holy Blood of the Crucified in a gourd-bottle. This relic was brought later to Constantinople. The Synaxarium of Constantinople mentions Baripsaba.

Barkisos, see Praxius, bishop of Jerusalem.

Barlaam, the hermit, and Josaphat (Joasaph), the son of the king. (Feast Nov 27; in the eastern church Nov 17 and Nov 19). John of Damascus wrote a roman: Josaphat, the son of a king, had been prevented by his father from seeing sickness and poverty. Afterwards the boy saw blind men, old people, sick men. The hermit Barlaam with a wonderstone, gained access to Josaphat and converted him by a parable. A sinner is persecuted by an unicorn, flees but fails into an abyss. tie climbs into a tree (=tree of life) but mice and rats day and night gnaw the roots. In the abyss a monster (= hell) threatens, but in the branches of the tree is honey (= life and happiness). The view of the happy things above, causes the sinner to forget the abyss. The romance is an allegory in praise of the monastic life. Since 1583 the Martyrologium Romanum considers Barlaam and Josaphat as saints. Their cult is also in the Byzantine synaxaries.

Barlassina Luigi. Latin patriarch of Jerusalem from 1920 to 1947. He was born at Turin (North Italy) 1872, April 30.

Barluzzi Antonio. Italian who built the Chapel of the Shepherds in Bethlehem, the Chapel of the Flagellation in Jerusalem, the Church of St. Lazare in Bethany. He died in Rome on Dec 14, 1960.

Barnabas, St, Apostle. In Acts 4, 36 the name is explained as 'son of consolation'; the surname was Joseph, a Levite of Cyprus. (Acts 4, 46) Tertullian proposed Barnabas as the author of the Letter to the Hebrews. The Martyr. Rom. says: Barnabas was martyred in Cyprus in the seventh year of Nero (50-68). Feast on June 11. in the Latin and Greek churches and in the Palestinian calendar.

Barnabas and the Gospel of Matthew. A tradition says that in 488 under Emperor Zeno, the body of Barnabas was discovered. On his breast was the Gospel of Matthew in the Greek language. The relics were offered to the Emperor Zeno (474-491). In account of this offering the archbishop of Constantia in Cyprus is allowed to bear a mantle in red silk, to have a sceptre instead of a staff, to sign in red script and to be named Beatitude.

Barnabas. One of the 70 disciples.

Barnabas, the monk. He lived at the time of Emperor Theodosius II (401-450). Barnabas was one of the 300 Palestinians who arrived in Cyprus, where he became a monk. The Greek liturgy mentions him on October 21.

Barochas, hermit of Gaza. Died round 473. He is mentioned as minister St. Porphyrii (round 420). (AA.SS. Feb 26).

Barronyos (or Barfonyos) of Banyos (or Fanyas). On the third day of the month Magabit, Barronyos of Banyos died (Ethiopian Synaxarium).

Barsabas, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Heraclea, in the Greek list. The Acts 1, 23 mention: They put forward two, Joseph called Barsabas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias… And the lot fell on Matthias, and he was enrolled with the eleven apostles. -The Roman Martyrology mentions a St. Barsabas, martyr in Persia, on Dec 11.

Barsoma, the 'son of tasting'. He is saluted in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on Yakatit 9. Abba Barsoma, the Syrian, was the father of the monks of the country of Syria. The parents of this saint were of the city of Samosate. Barsoma lived in the days of Abba Simeon of the Pillar (= the Stylite). Barsoma preached in the city of Samaria, and when he wrought before the people many signs and wonders, they believed. A disciple of Barsoma came to a place wherein was the head of Saint John the Baptist, and he saluted this holy head. The disciple asked about the Emperor Marcianus, and a voice came forth from the head of Saint John, saying: 'Fear not, for he is dead; Barsoma complained of him to God'. And Saint Abba Barsoma died, and a pillar of light appeared by the gates of his cell, and the light reached to heaven.

Barsanorius, Abbas see Barsanuphius anchorite of Gaza.

Barsanuphius, St., anchorite of Gaza, in the time of the Emperor Justinian I (523-565). He was the author of 850 letters for spiritual guidance, he died 540. Feast April 11, Mart. Rom. - Notitia ex Vita S. Barsanorii, abbatis.

Barsanuphius, monk. He was born in Egypt and went on pilgrimage

to the Holy Land. He entered the monastery of St. Seridon near Gaza where he stayed in one room for eighteen years. He performed miracles, he died in 400. The Greek Church venerates him on Feb 6.

Bartholomaeus de Bregancia (falsus) Latin patriarch of Jerusalem in Acre, died 1272. (AA.SS. July 1)

Bartholomew, St., Apostle. (Aug 24 in Martyrology Rom.; in the Greek church on June 11). He is listed along with the other Apostles in Mk 3, 18; Mt 10, 3; Lk 6, 14; Acts 1, 13. It is possible to identify him with Nathanael, the disciple who figures in Jn 1, 45-51 and who is named, together with Peter, Thomas and John, in Jn 21, 2. This Nathanael was from Cana. - At the northern end of Cana, the Custody of the Holy Land has built a chapel in honour of St. Bartholomew. On Aug 24 the Franciscan community of Nazareth makes a pilgrimage to Cana and celebrates in the chapel of St. Bartholomew a Holy Mass. - Various traditions name Ethiopia, India, and Persia as his missionary field. According to the Martyrologium Romanum he also preached in Armenia, where he died as a martyr, being flayed alive and then beheaded. The Melkite liturgy has on June 11: the apostles Bartholomew and Barnabas. - The Armenians venerate Bartholomew on Dec 8; Feb 2; Aug 24; - Copts and Ethiopians have his feast on June 18 and on Nov 20; the Jacobites on August 29. According to the Greek liturgy (June 11) Barnabas suffered martyrdom in Urbanopolis (Armenia). His relics appeared in Lipara (Sicily) where they are venerated today.

Translation of his relics. In the Melkite liturgy on Aug 25, together with the memory of the Apostle Titus.

Bartholomew, abbot in Calabria, Blessed. The 'Vita B. Bartholomei, c. III, n. 28-30' mentions his relations with Alexius 1 Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (1081-1118). (AA.SS. Sept 8, App 800, 808, 821, 822).

Bartholomew Lippi dal Colle, Blessed. In 1458 the General Chapter

of the Franciscan Order sent him to Crete, which belonged to the Mission of the Holy Land. He died in Poggibonsi (Italy) in 1478. His commemoration in the Franciscan Martyrology is on March 15.

Bartholomew of Cremona. This Franciscan Father was the companion of William of Ruisbroek, and went with him to the court of the great Khan Mangu at Karakorum (Dec 1253 - Jan 1254).

Bartholomew of Siena, Franciscan Father. A papal document of 1278 mentions him as Minister Syriae. He was involved in the union between the Churches. After his function, he returned to Italy, where he remained. He seems to belong to the family of Piccolomini in Siena.

Bartimaeus, the blind man who was healed in Jericho (Luke 18, 35. 43). Mark 10, 46 names him Bartimaeus, son of Timaeus. - The Greek liturgy reads the Gospel of Luke 18, 35-43 on the Sunday between Dec 1 and Dec 3. The same gospel is also read after the Cross (= the exaltation of the Cross, Sept 14). Pilgrim Pipinus (died 1320) speaks of a chapel on the way from Jericho to Jerusalem, the chapel recalls the healing of the blind Bartimaeus. There was after 1948 a camp of refugees. The camp had a mosque with a minaret.

Bartoloni Riccardo, Monseigneur. He was Apostolic Delegate for Palestine; he was present when the Latin Patriarch Barlassina inaugurated the Convent of the Franciscan Sisters of Mary at Nablus Road, Jerusalem on Aug 10, 1933. He died in Jerusalem on Oct 11, 1933, and was buried in the Latin co-cathedral.

Baruch, prophet (Nov 15; Sept 28). He was a disciple of Jeremiah, the prophet. In the Martyrologium Romanum and in Greek synaxaries Baruch is mentioned as 'Saint'; sometimes he bears the nimbus of the saints.

Barupsabas, martyr. Sept 10 in Greek synaxaries and by the Georgians. This monk kept a relic of blood (and water) that flowed from

the side of the Crucified. Unbelievers tried to take this relic and killed him. (BHG 238)

Base, martyr. Mentioned without year in Tyre (Phoenicia), Sept 22. (AA.SS.)

Basil, the confessor. He was a monk during the reign of Emperor Leo III, the Isaurian (717-740). He was an opponent of the iconoclasts and worked together with Procopius of Decapolis. Basil died in peace. The Greek liturgy venerates him on Feb 28.

Basil of Cherson (March 7). He lived in the 3rd century and was sent by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Hermon (302-312), to preach the Gospel in Cherson. He called back to life the son of the governor. Thereupon the governor and his family were converted. Basil and the governor and his family suffered martyrdom under Diocletian (283-313). Basil is remembered together with Ephrem, with Eugenius, Agathodorus, Capiton, Aitherus and Elpidus (March 7 in the Greek liturgy). The Martyrologium Romanum has the passion on March 4, and adds: Nestor and Arcadius.

Basil of Jerusalem. Basil was the successor of patriarch Thomas 1 (807-829). Basil signed in 836 a letter to the Emperor Theophilus (827-842) about the cult of images. The feast of Basil is on July 2 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. The feast of patriarch Thomas 1 is on May 12.

Basil the Great. He was born in Pontus, Asia Minor, about 329. He died in Caesarea, Cappadocia, on Jan 1, 379. The Roman liturgy has his feast on June 14; the Eastern Churches on Jan 1, Jan 2, Jan 30. It seems that round 351 Basil came to Caesarea, Palestine, as a priest. In 370 he became bishop of Caesarea, Cappadocia. The AA.SS. name him ' Basilius Caesariensis ' and mention his visit to Palestine round 350. (AA.SS. June 14). Basilius had a brother, Peter of Sebaste, who died in 392. This Peter speaks about the Upper Room on Mount Sion

Basileus of Cherson see Basil of Cherson.

Basilina Cappadocensis. She came to Palestine round 545. (Vita S. Joh. Silent., auct. Cyrilo, c. III, n. 23) (AA.SS. May 13)

Basilius and 70 companions. Martyrs at Scythopolis (Beth-Shan) in Palestine, without date, July 5 (AA.SS.).

Basilius, patriarch of Jerusalem, 760-772. Eusebius, Theodosius, Basilius (AA.SS. Prop.,) (AA.SS.: June 26; Oct 4).

Basilius, Sergius, Salomon, Theodosius, Elias III, patriarchs of Jerusalem, round 821. 907. (AA.SS. May 3, Prop.)

Basily. He had been appointed in 1839 as Russian consul for Syria and Palestine. His permanent seat was in Beirut, but in the course of time he moved to Jerusalem.

Bassa, Bl. Cyril of Scythopolis tells that Bassa was a near relative of Eudocia and had founded (after 444) a martyrion of S. Menas (Vita Euthymii, ch. 30). In the foundation of Bassa was the memory of Isaiah, the prophet, and of Menas and Phocas on May 5. (also on July 10, and on Nov 12: on Nov 12 was the commemoration of the Blessed Bassa in the martyrion of Menas). Bassa was an abbess. She founded the chapel of St. Mena(s) before 456.

Bassa, Bl., June 16: Memory, only in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. In the Foundation of Bassa in the church of Mena: finding of the bones of the prophet Isaiah. - There is a memory of Bassa on Dec 6 in the Georgian liturgy. In Bassae aedificio memorial of Isaiah the prophet and of Menas and Phocas, Oct 31 in the Georgian liturgy. Bassa et Mena (memory June 16) The church of Mena(s) was founded by an Abbess called Bassa before 456, and it may well survive as the chapel of St Mena(s) which projects from the north wall of the present Armenian Cathedral of St. James in Jerusalem.

Bathildis, saint, queen. (fabulosum) She came to Palestine round 645 (AA.SS. Jan 20).

Batra (or Zatra) Wangel. Abbot of Dabra Libanos, the sixteenth of the learned fathers. He died on the 20th of the month Genbot. (Ethiopian Synaxarium)

Baumgarter Stephan. He drew in his Itinerarium (non-edited) in 1498 the Edicule which is above the Tomb of Jesus. The Edicule has a turret which is supported by six round columns. The cupola of the turret is without an ikon. - The design of Bernard de Breydenbach (1480) shows also the six columns which support the turret. In the design of Breydenbach the cupola is also without an ikon. An ikon of Christ is mentioned by Daniel Phocas in 1108. The ikon was the work of the Franks.

Bavarian. The 301st, the 302nd, the 303rd and the 304th Bavarian Wings of the German Flying Corps were attached to the Asienkorps in Palestine in World War I (1914-1918). In Jenin is the monument of the fallen airmen of the 300th Wing of the German Flying Corps.

Becket Thomas, St. and his murderers. Just inside the el Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem, a spot on the pavement is pointed out as the Tomb of the Sons of Aaron. This is believed to be the resting place of murderers of Thomas Becket. They made a pilgrimage of penance to Jerusalem and some of them died there, and were buried 'ante ostium Templi'. Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered in 1170, under Henry II. According to the English chronicler Hovenden, the murderers were admitted to penance by Pope Alexander III.

Belardo di Ascoli (Italy), Belardus de Esculo. He belonged to a religious order, he visited the Holy Land in 1112-1120, and wrote' Descriptio Terrae Sanctae' (Vatican library).

Belgian pilgrims crashed in 1965. In the night of Saturday-Palmsunday 1965 a plane of the Jordanian airline that flew from Beyrouth to Caire, crashed near Damascus. All the passengers, including 48 Belgians and 2 Dutchmen and the 4 men of the crew, were killed.

Bell Gertrude, Miss. She was an archaeologist and an diplomat, she played a role in placing King Feisal, son of King Hussein of Arabia, on the throne in Damascus and later in Iraq. She died in Bagdad in 1926.

Belloni Antonio. He was born at Oneglia (Italy) on Aug 20, 1831. He became professor at the Latin seminary at Beit-Jala near Bethlehem in 1859. He founded an orphanage at Bethlehem in 1863, and an agricultural school in 1878 at Beit Jemal. He also founded the Institute of the Holy Family, an congregation of priests and lay brothers. In 1891 he transferred this congregation to the congregation of Don Bosco (Salesians). Belloni died on Aug 9, 1903.

Bellorini Theophilo, Franciscan. He was born at Olginasio, Italy, on November 23, 1884. He became a Franciscan in 1900; he worked in Jerusalem in 1913-1914. He returned to Palestine in 1921 he acquired Mount Nebo in 1932. He died in the Hospital of Amman, Jan 20, 1957 and was buried at the cemetery of Gethsemane, Jerusalem.

Belludi Luca(s), Blessed. He was a companion of Fidentius of Padova (Italy). Belludi died in 1260 (or 1269). Fidentius died in 1295. Pius XI in 1927 beatified Belludi. Belludi was a friend of St. Anthony of Padua (Padova). Anthony died in Padua on June 13, 1231. The remains of Belludi were reburied in the stone coffin, in which the corpse of St. Anthony of Padua had rested till 1350. A Latin inscription on the coffin mentions: 'Afterwards the stone coffin served for his companion, the Blessed Lucas, till the year 177V.

Benates: see Council (248) of the Bishops against Benates.

Benedict of Alignano, Franciscan Father. He came twice to the Orient. In 1239 he followed Teobald of Navarre. As a bishop he joined the Franciscan order in 1258. He returned to the Middle East in 1260 and stayed there till 1263. He died in 1268. (Grabmann Martin, Der Franziskanerbischof Benedictus de Alignano und seine Summa zum Caput 'Firmiter' des vierten Laterankonzils, in Kirchengeschichtliche Studien P. Michael Bihi, als Ehrengabe dargeboten. Kolmar 1941, S. 50-64)

Benedict of Arezzo, Blessed, confessor. Born in 1190 in Arezzo (Italy). By the treaty of 1229 till 1239 between Malik el-Kamel and Emperor Frederick II, Nazareth, Bethlehem, and Jerusalem were to remain in the possession of the Christians with a strip connecting Jerusalem to Acre. On account of this treaty, Benedict visited the Holy Places in 1232 and worked for the Union of the Christian Churches. He died in Arezzo on Aug 31, 1282.

Benedict of Bassano, Venice, martyr, Franciscan. He worked some years in the Holy Land and returned to Italy, where he was nominated General Commissar for Palestine in 1638. On his way to Palestine, he visited the island of Stanchio near Cyprus. He was interrogated and acknowledged that he came from Venice. He was denounced as a spy and sent to Rhodos, where he was placed among slaves on a galley. The ambassador of Venice in Constantinople asked for his liberation, but Benedict died after six months of captivity, in 1639.

Benedictus, St., bishop. The AA.SS. on Oct 23 mention 'iter S. Benedicti, episcopi, e Samaria Pictavos'. (4th century)

Benjamin, Saint, 6th bishop of Jerusalem. 2nd century, Dec 11 (AA.SS.)

Bercharius St., Dervensis Abbas, and Welmarus, count of Campania. They visited Palestine after 673. (Vita S. Berch., auctore Adsone, lib. 1, c. III, n. 24; lib. 11, c. II, n. 16) (AA.SS. Oct 16)

Bernadotte of Sweden, Count (1895-1948). He arrived in Palestine on July 24, 1948. He was killed by terrorists in Jerusalem on Sept 17, 1948. A forest near Neve-Ilan (the plain of the tree) is dedicated to Count Bernadotte of Sweden. Bernadotte set up the UN Truce Supervision Organization, with its seat in the former British Government House.

Bernard Caimi, Blessed, Franciscan. This Franciscan left Italy in 1478, for the Holy Land. A second time he came to Palestine in 1487, and ruled this Mission till 1489. He founded a church on Mount Varallo (Italy), and died in 1501 or 1502.

Bernard of Breydenbach. In his sketches of 1480, he shows the Edicule above the Tomb of Jesus, as it was after the conquest of Jerusalem by the Kharismian Turks in 1240-44. (Compare: Baumgarter Stephan (1498)

Bernard, the monk. (France) He wrote 'Itinerarium' (870). He described the Holy Fire on Saturday of Holy Week.

Bernard of Clervaux (France), founder of the Cistercians (10901153). He preached the second Crusade (1146-1149).

Bernard of Mont St. Michel. He stayed in the Latin Quarter of Jerusalem in 870. To be identified with Bernard the monk.

Bernardino Amico. He sketched the Tomb of Rachel with 4 pointed arches, i.e. not yet walled up, as it is now. - He sketched the Edicule above the Tomb as it was after the repair by Bonifacius of Ragusa in 1555. His sketches are printed in the work of Quaresmius.

Bernardus, Arcanus, Gerardus, Saints. They are mentioned about 1099 in AA.SS. Oct 14.

Bernardus, primus episcopus latinus Nazarenus, 1123. (AA.SS. Nov 29)

Bernardus, St., of England. He came to Palestine in the 11th/12th century. (AA.SS. Oct 14)

Bernardus, the father of Saint Bona. Bernardus came to Palestine in 1159 (AA.SS. June 17).

Bernardus Poenitens, St. (Johannes mon., Vita S. Bern., c. I, n. 7) He came to Palestine in the 12th century. (AA.SS. April 19)

Bernes, sister of 'Filles de Charité'. She was 74 years in 1975. She worked in the Home for Children at Ain-Karem. She received a decoration from the Jerusalem Municipality.

Bernhard of Baden, Blessed. (July 15; in Germany July 24). He was born in 142811429. In 1454 he resigned his territorial property (Markgraf of Baden) and, as an ambassador of Emperor Frederick III, he recruited in Germany, France and Italy for a Crusade. In 1458 at Moncalieri near Turin he succumbed to the pestilence, which after his death stopped immediately. In 1769 he was inscribed on the list of the Blessed.

Bernice. name of the daughter who was healed by Jesus, because her mother, the Canaanite or Syrophoenician woman, asked for cure. (Mt 15, 22; Mk 7, 25). - The name of the mother was Justa (Pseudo-Clementine Homelies).

Bernice (in Coptic, Beronice; in Latin, Veronica). This name is given to the woman with an issue of blood, whom Jesus healed (Mt 9, 20; Mk 5, 25; Lk 8, 43). - A tradition says: After her cure she followed Jesus where-ever He went. Tradition also adds that she wiped the face of Christ on the Via Dolorosa (6th Station), and that she was summoned to Rome by the Emperor Tiberius (14-37), who was cured of an illness by merely looking on the image of Christ's face.

Berthaidus, St. The AA.SS. mention, before 533, Amandus St., and Berthaidus St., in Palestine (AA.SS. June 16).

Berthold, the Lombard, St., General Prior of the Carmelites (11451188). He vowed to enter a religious order, provided that God saved the army of the Crusaders from a grave danger. When he arrived in Palestine with the Crusaders, he entered the Order of the Carmelites. He died at 105 years of age on Mount Carmel near Haifa. Feast March 29. (some give as dates for his life: 1130 to 1195. The AA.SS. have for his death 1200)

Berutawos (Protheus?). He sang and played funerary music with the Apostles, when the Virgin Mary died. He is saluted by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 21th of the month Miyazya (April 6 - May 5).

Bethlem. A Flemish priest, known as 'Bethlem', who had resided in Jerusalem for a certain time. Bethlem wrote a pious book ' Dit is een devote meditacie op die passie ons liefs Heeren'. This ' devout meditation on the Passion of our Lord'was probably written between 1471 and 1490, but published in the 16th century. The work had three printings in the year 1518 alone. - Bethlem spreads the Passion, which begins in the Cenacle, over 25 episodes among the seven days of the week. Bethlem names a fall of Jesus near the Judgment Gate, which agrees with Burchard of Mount Sion (1283). The work of Bethlem is in a manuscript at Sint-Truiden (Belgium), Franciscan Convent. Bethlem seems unaware of the episode of the Daughters of Jerusalem.

Bethlem. This name is written above a church or convent outside the walls of Brussels, on a map of Nicolaus Visscher (17th century).

The building is to the south of the Gate of Anderlecht and towards 't Groot Speuy, not far from the place where the condemned were hanged.

Bethlehem-bells. Twelve medieval bells, fabricated in France, were discovered at Bethlehem in 1906. The carillon is now in the Museum of the Flagellation, Via Dolorosa, Jerusalem.

Bet Kherum. Is the field where the tomb of Abdeyu (Obadiah), the prophet and righteous man is venerated. (Ethiopian Synaxarium, Ter 15)

Bezennos: see Zebennos, bishop of Eleutheropolis.

Bileam: see Balaam.

Birgitta = Bridget of Sweden.

Bishops of the four Councils: Memory in the Church of the Resurrection, Sept 26, according to the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. The 'Four Councils' were remembered on Sept 17.

Bithynia: A certain non-sleeping monk (acoemetus) of Bithynia visited Palestine round 440. (Vita S. Joh. Calybitae, n. 3-4;- Vita alia ejusdem, lat. vers., c. i, n. 3-5;- Vita ejusdem, auct. Anastasio Biblioth., n. 3-4) The AA.SS. mention the sleeper on Jan 15.

Blasius, Armenian martyr. He is depicted on a column in the nave of the Basilica of Nativity at Bethlehem. (Hamilton R. W. The Church of the Nativity. 1947, p. 70, 78).

Blesensis see Stephanus Blesensis.

Blessing of the water of the Jordan. It was done during the night of Epiphany (516 Jan) by the laura of Calamon (= reed) which was near the Jordan.

Blessitt Arthur, (U.S. X). After 22, 500 kms of walking with a wooden Cross along five continents and through 30 countries Arthur Blessitt came to Jerusalem. On Saturday, February 26, 1977 he pilgrimaged from the Mount of Olives to the courtyard of the Holy Sepulchre. Then he continued to the Garden Tomb (just up from Damascus Gate on Nablus Road), where he preached.

Blind beggar, healed in the Pool of Siloam. see Cedonius.

Blyth. Reverend, (1887-1914) Anglican bishop. Under Blyth the title Bishop of Jerusalem was changed to Bishop in Jerusalem, to appease the Greek-Orthodox Patriarch Nicodemus.

Boamundus see Bohemund

Bohemund I, Duke of Tarentum. The principality of Antioch was founded by Bohemund in 1098. The patriarch of Antioch gave a lot of relics to Bohemund. (Eadmerus, Hist. novorum I, IV, c. II, n. 28 (AA.SS. April 21) Bohemund was back in Normandy in 1106.

Bols L. Sir, Maj. Gen. C. A. British Military Administrator of Palestine from Jan 1, 1920 to 30 June 1920. At 30 June 1920 started the British Civil Administration.

Bona, Saint. She was the daughter of Herachus, patriarch of Jerusalem. Bona came to Palestine in 1169, together with Gaitana and Massaia. (Vita S. Bonae, c. I, n. 1 1-17) (AA.SS. May 29)

Bonaventura Bernaita Brocard (round 1280) Franciscan. He wrote a book 'Delineatio et descriptio Jerusalem et Terrae promissionis' Parisiis, 1533-1534. He is mentioned in Quaresmius, Elucidatio Terrae Sanctae, Liber V, cap. X, per. II, p 379, note a). Bonaventura writes about the Sepulchre of Christ: it has marble plates on the outside, but inside the rock is bare.

Bonaventura Brocart, Franciscan. He was born in Normandy. He was superior in the convent of Carcassone. He was a missionary in Palestine, he wrote a book about the Holy Places, but his work is lost, he returned to Carcassone (France), and died in 1451. The Martyrologium Romanum names him on June 6; the Breviarium Romanum commemorated him on Nov 25.

Bonaventura da Colonnelia, servant of God, martyr, 1609. Soon after his ordination as a priest, he came to Palestine and began to preach. He was imprisoned and died in jail, Dec 30, 1609. The Menology of the Franciscan Order remembers him on Dec 30.

Bondus, St. see Baidus, St. round 565.

Bonifacius of Lausanne, St. He predicts in 1250 the captivity of St. Louis. (Vita S. Bonifacii, c. IV, n. 15) The AA.SS. mention Bonifacius on Feb 19.

Bonifacius of Montferrat, Crusader. He received in 1185 the Castle of St. Elias in Taybeh (=the Biblical Efrem).

Bononius, Saint, Benedictine monk. He was born in the midst of the 10th century. He lived near Cairo. After the battle of Stilo in 982, the besieged christians were sold as slaves. Under them was Petrus, the bishop of Vercelli (Italy). Bononius, who was near Cairo, assisted the prisoners of war and accompanied them as far as Jerusalem and Constantinople. On his way of return over Mount Sinai, Bononius received information that the liberated Petrus had nominated him as abbot of Lucedio (Locedia) in Italy. Bononius went to his abbey, where after 30 years of rule, he died on Aug 30, 1026. John XIX confirmed his cult. (AA.SS. Aug 30; Feb 13)

Boré Eugène, priest (1809-1877). This Frenchman was a disciple of F. de Lamennais. Bord worked during thirty years in Armenia.

Bossi Giuseppe Carlo de Bossi of Turin. This count (1758-1823) was of Florentine origin. He was minister of the king of Piemont. He had only one child, Aurelia. She went to Palestine in 1856, there she built on the site of the Pater Noster on the top of the Mount of Olives a church and a cloister. This cloister, modelled on the Campo Santo of Pisa, was intended as the place for her burial. Aurelia brought the embalmed heart of her father in an urn to Jerusalem and placed the urn above the sarcophage above the sarcophage in which her remains should be buried.

Bossi Aurelia, Princess de la Tour d'Auvergne, et de Bouillon. (1809-1889) Aurelia was the daughter of Giuseppe Carlo de Bossi of Turin. Her second marriage in Genoa was with Prince Maurice Caesar de la Tour d'Auvergne. As a widow of 47 years; she came to Jerusalem in 1856. She needed 11 years (1 857-1868)to buy the site of Pater Noster on top of the Mount of Olives. During 2 years (18681870) she made there excavations with the help of Clermont Ganneau, then Chancellor of the French Consulate. Aurelia built the church and the cloister, which were occupied by the Carmelite Sisters in 1874. She retired to Florence where she died in 1889. Her last desire was that her remains should be laid to rest in the Pater Noster in the sarcophage which she herself had prepared in the cloister. Her wish was fulfilled only on Dec 22, 1957.

Bost Julien (1826-1888) Frenchman. He was the Latin parish priest in Gifneh.

Botta Paul Emile, archaeologist and diplomat. He was French consul in Alexandria. He began the excavations at Tell Kuyunjick, opposite the city of Mosul, Iraq (1842) and at Khorsabad (1843), Botta was consul in Jerusalem from 1848 to 1854. After the intervention of Botta and of the French ambassador in Constantinople, Valerga, the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem (1847-1872), received a firman authorizing him to build a church in Beit-Jala. (Firman of July 27, 1854). In Botta street in West Jerusalem is the French Consulate.

Boulos-Bernardine Merlo. Priest, canon of the Holy Sepulchre in the Latin Patriarchate, died on March 9,, 1977; he was 73 years.

Bovet Felix. This Protestant theologian visited the Holy Land in 1858 and wrote about it.

Boziya. The name of the dancing daughter of Herodias (see Dancing Daughter)

Bramanti Bruno. He was born in Florence at the end of 1897. He illustrated with wood engravings Papini's History of Christ (1932), Dickens' Life of Our Lord (1934); during a stay of 6 months in the Holy Land in 1932 he engraved the Jerusalem series of 20 cuts; he engraved the Life of Christ in 65 cuts in 1952. Died in Florence in 1967. The woodcuts of 'Life of Christ' are in the Museum of the Flagellation, Jerusalem. The first Bramanti exhibition to be hold in Jerusalem in 1934 was inaugurated by the artist in person.

Brancovich. The brothers Anthony and James Brancovich were from the Balkan. They bought in 1681 for the Franciscans parts of the Garden of Gethsemane.

Braulion (Broullon). St., bishop of Saragossa. He visited Palestine before Arculf, who came to the Holy Land in 640. Braulion mentions a shroud, in which was wrapped the body of the Lord, without indicating where the shroud is preserved.

Breccia (in Italy): Circa 630 falsa cruciata Brixiensium tempore imperatoris HeracIii (Asc. Martinengus, vita S. Felicis, nr 3) (AA.SS. Feb 23)

Bridegroom of Cana: see Simeon the Canaanite (May 10)

Bridget of Sweden, St. Born Upland, 1302 or 1303, died Rome, 1373. Feast Oct 8. Visions and revelations, which she had first experienced in childhood, became more frequent and began to be written down. Bridget went to Rome in 1349, and for the rest of her life remained there. In 1371 she made a long pilgrimage to the Holy Land. She was especially concerned for the return to Rome of the Avignon popes, and for 20 years she admonished them to do so.

Brigida, St. She is mentioned together with Maura, St. in the 6th/7th century. (AA.SS. May 5; July 13)

Brigitta of Sweden (Bridget of Sweden): Her grandparents visited Palestine in the 13th century. (Birgerus Ups., Vita S. Brig., c I) (AA.SS. Oct 8)

Brisard Maria. She lived in Oordegem (Flanders), she died at 74, on Jan 27, 1979. She had visited the Holy Land for the third time in 1978. She worked during 45 years for the cleansing of the parish church of Oordegem.

British Administration of Palestine (Military) from 1917 to 1920. On Dec 9, 1917 surrender of Jerusalem to Allenby. On Oct 30, 1918 Armistice with Turkey. On June 28, 1919 Treaty of Versailles. On April 25, 1920 the Mandate is allotted to Great Britain. On July 1, 1920 starts the British Civil Administration. On Aug 10, 1920, Treaty of Sèvres: Turkey renounces sovereignty over Palestine. On July 24, 1922 the Mandate for Palestine is approved by the Council of the League of Nations.

British Mandate. During World War II (1939-45) the High Commissioners for Palestine were: Sir Harold Mac Michael (1938-1944), lord Gort (1944-1945). - Sir Alan Cunningham was Commissioner from 1945 to May 15, 1948. On May 14, 1948 the State of Israel was proclaimed. On May 15, 1948 was the termination of the British Mandate.

British Parliamentary Delegation to the State of Israel. The delegation donated the seven branched menorah (candelabrum) - 5 m. high and 4 m. wide - in the Knesset Garden. The panels on this menorah represent figures and events of the Jewish people.

Brocard (or Burchard of Barby, Burchard of Mount Sion). This Dominican Father was in the Holy Land. He wrote about 1290 'Descriptio Terrae Sanctae'. The book had 122 reprints or translations from 1475 to 1880.

Brocardus Bonaventura. This French Franciscan came in 1533 to the Holy Land. He published in 1544 at Paris 'Iter ad loca sancta et ad montem Sina Arabiae'.

Brocardus, St. Prior general of the Carmelite Fathers. He obtained from Albert, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, a rule for the Carmelite Fathers on Mount Carmel. Brocardus is buried on Mount Carmel. The AA.SS. place his death circa 1221, and his feast on April 8. A feast of Sept 2 is particular to the Latin Patriarchate and is not mentioned in Mart. Rom.

Brosserius Philippe, Savonensis. He mentions a tradition that James the Major was beheaded in Joppe. But he prefers the tradition that the beheading was in Jerusalem, where St. James the Major has his church (St James in the Armenian Quarter). (PPTS, vol VI, p. 22) (Revue de l’Orient Latin, IX, p. 351, nb.)

Brussel, Bruxelles, Brussels. Wolf in 'Niederl. Sagen 139, vgl 172 raconte: La nouvelle du retour des croisés Bruxellois (en 1101) de la première croisade (1096-1099) s' était repandue en ville. Les épouses volaient à leur rencontre et rapportaient leurs époux sur leurs dos, tandis que les cloches sonnaient. Depuis lors, la coutume que le soir du 19 janvier (le date de la rentrée) toutes les cloches sonnent à Bruxelles, que l’époux donne des cadeaux à son épouse, et que celle-ci porte sur le dos l’époux dans la chambre à coucher.

Bruxelles, Manneken Pis de Bruxelles. Wolf dans Niederl. Sagen, p. 451 raconte: Quand les croisés rentraient de la Terre Sainte ils furent accueillis avec une procession par le clergé et le peuple. Godfroi, le fils d'un riche citoyen, était parmi les spectateurs. Godfroi commence à pisser au moment que la procession passait. Par manque de respect, la punition divine le frappa! Il continuait à pisser, sans pouvoir finir, jusqu' à ce qu' il mourut. (The book Niederl. Sagen is mentioned by Rôhricht, Pilgerreisen, Beitrâge zur deschichte der Kreuzzuge, Band II, 1878, p. 399)

Burchard (Burkhard) or Brocard. Round 1283 there lived in Jerusalem the count Burchard of Barby. He was a Dominican, and was surnamed 'of Mount Sion'. He declared that the tomb of Jesus bore marble plates on the outside, but the inside was the natural rock, just as at the time of the burial. This Burchard seems to mention a door between the vestibule and the sepulchral chamber. (Reyszbuch, p. 461)

Burchard of Barby, Dominican Father. see Burchard

Burdett-Coutts, Baroness, English. This lady desired to improve the water supply of Jerusalem. She induced Conder to make a survey of Western Palestine. Conder began this survey in 1872.

Burgundy (Duke of Burgundy) 1560. He legated by testament that his heart should be buried in Jerusalem.

Buttadeus (strike Deus, push God). The Dominican Father Peter of Penna (round 1350) in his 'Libellus de locis Ultramarinis' relates: Here (where Simon helped to carry the cross) is shown the place where John Buttadeus derided Christ, when He was going to die. (Revue de l'Orient Latin, 1902 p. 358)

Byzantine Emperors over the Holy Land: 305-337, Constantine the Great began the Byzantine rule. It ended with Emperor Heraclius (610-641). In 637 Caliph Omar conquered the Holy Land.

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