A. Mertens, "Who was a Christian in the Holy Land?" - Encyclopedia

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Aaron, the priest. He was the brother of Moses. Aaron is designated as the speaker for Moses; Aaron was invited to accompany Moses to the peak of Sinai (Ex 19, 24) alone. Another tradition adds his two sons and 72 elders (Ex 24, 1), while another leaves him with Hur in charge of the people (Ex 24, 14). Aaron was associated with the construction of the golden calf (Ex 32, 1ff), but was not punished. Greek synaxaries venerate Aaron on July 20; the Palestinian-Georgian calendar has his feast on Aug 9, also Sept 3 and 5, Oct 5. On Sept 3 the commemoration is of Aaron, Eleazar, Phinees, priests.

Aaron in the Islam: When Muhammad's Jewish spouse, Safiyya, was insulted by one of the Prophet's other wives, he allegedly advised her to retort: 'My father was Aaron and my uncle Moses'.

Aaron's Tomb. Tradition assigns Mount Hor (Num 20, 22-29) and Moses (Moserah) (Dt 10, 6) as the location of Aaron's death. Djebel Haroun (1396 m.) near Petra in East-Jordan has a weli (sanctuary) that is built over a tomb. The shrine was restored in the 13th century by the Mamluk Sultan Qalaoun. This so-called Tomb of Aaron and the identification of this hill with Mount Hor, date from the first centuries of the Christian era.

Aaron and Pantaleon and Aelianus, saints: Here not meant Aaron the priest of the Old Testament, but a saint who was named Aaron. The memory of these three saints was, according to the Georgian liturgy, on Aug 12.

Aaron of Galilee: Salutation to the great teacher of Dabra Maryam, Absadi and Aaron of Galilee. (This paragraph is wanting in the Bodleian ms). On the 30th of Maskaram (= First month, Sept 8 - Oct 7) in the Ethiopian Synaxarium.

Aaron, the Syrian. This monk had the gift of healing and working miracles. He is remembered in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 21th day of the month Genbot.

Abas, Armenian. see Thevas.

Abba Gabra Mantas Kedus, the star of the desert. He was from the city of Nehisa, in the north of Egypt. The Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 29th day of the month Magabit: A great voice cried, « Take the body of Gabra Manfas Kedus, and carry it away, and let his grave be in Jerusalem, on the right-hand side of the altar».

Abd-Kelal, Homeritarum rex. He became a Christian before 297. (Vita S. Arethae, Nr 4)

Abdeyu = Obadiah. He was the third captain whom Ahab, the King of Samaria, sent with fifty men to summon Elijah, the prophet, to the King. After Elijah went down and went to Ahab, this just man knew within himself that the service of Elijah was greater and more honourable then the service of the kings of the earth. He forsook the service of King Ahab and followed Elijah, the prophet, and ministered unto him. Obadiah died in peace and was buried in the tomb of his fathers in the field which was known as Bet Kherum. (Ethiopian Synaxarium, Ter 15)

Abdias, prophet. see Obadiah. (Nov 19)

Abdias St. Prophet: His Tomb is venerated in the crypt of a Byzantine church in the village of Samaria (Hieronymus, ep 46, 13). in the «Vitae Prophetarum» the tomb of prophet Abdias is identified with the tomb of the homonymous Abdias, an officer of King Ahab (1 Kings 18, 3).

AbduI Masich (Mar = Saint) Jew, in the city Singara, (5th century) Anal. Boll. V. The Analecta Bollandiana have a vita, aramaica cum latina versione.

Abdenego: Babylonian name of Misael, one of the three children in the furnace. (Ethiopian Syn., Takhshash 2)

Abel. He was the second son of Adam and Eve. He was murdered by Cain, his older brother (Gen 4, 1-9). The Fathers of the Church name Abel a martyr. Abel is not listed in the Roman Martyrology or in the Byzantine Synaxaries. He is venerated by the Ethiopians. Abel (the «just» is named, together with Abraham and with Melchisedech, in the first canon (Roman canon) of the Mass. The sacrifice of Abel was accepted by God; therefore Abel is counted among the just of the Old Testament),. On some paintings Abel is represented with a nimbus.

Abel F. M. This Dominican scholar published in 1933-38 'Géographie de la Palestine' in 2 volumes.

Abercius, St. bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia: the Georgians have his feast on Oct 21; the Greeks on Oct 22. This Abercius was famous in the time of Emperor Marcus Antoninus; his feast is on Oct 22 in the Roman Martyrology (AA.SS.: Oct 21). The Emperor Marcus Antoni(n)us was murdered in 2431244 during an Eastern expedition.

Aberkius was the son of Alphaeus the Apostle, and he suffered martyrdom. The Greek liturgy venerates Aberkius on May 26.

Abgarus, Abgar V, king of Osrhoene in Syria. He reigned 4 BCE to 7 CE and 13 - 50 CE. A legend tells: Abgar received a portrait of the Lord Jesus, that was made by the Lord Himself. Feast June 20; see also Analecta Boll., IV.

Abibo, St. (Feast: Aug 3. in Mart. Rom.) Christian tradition relates that he was the son of Gamaliel 1 (the Elder), and that his body was found in the tomb together with the bodies of his father Gamaliel, Nicodemus and Stephen, the first martyr. The finding happened in Kafargamala in 415. Jewish sources name other children of Gamaliel: Simeon who succeeded him, and a daughter (Tosef., Av. Zar. 3, 10) Kafargamala, 11 Sepolcro di Santo Stefano, protomartire e dei Santi Nicodemo, Gamaliele e Abibone, ritrovata a Beitgemal, 1923.

Abimelech. He was the son of Gideon, the Judge, and his Canaanite concubine. Abimelech murdered all the sons of Gideon except Jotham. Abimelech himself was killed during an attack on Thebez (now Tubas) by a mil1stone flung from the wall by a woman (Jgs 9, 50). This misfortune became proverbial (2 Sam 11, 21).

Abimelek, the Ethiopian. He was the captain of the royal guard. He brought prophet Jeremiah out of the prison. He is venerated in the Ethiopian Synaxary on the 20th of the month Miyazya.

Abisalom. See: Apselamos.

Abo, St., Jan 7: On the shore of the Lake of Tiberias was the feast of the Baptism of the Lord and the memory of the martyr, Abo, Georgian, who was before an Ishmaelite. Abo of Tiflis was martyred on Jan 6, 786. On account of the feast of Ephiphany, his feast was postponed to Jan 7.

Abraham, St. Patriarch and Father of the Believers. (Feast Oct 9 in Mart. Rom.) He erected an altar at Bethel(= Beitin), another at Mambre (north of Hebron). At Shechem he received the promise that his descendants would possess Canaan. He was met at Salem (Jerusalem) by its king Melchizedek. Beersheva is associated with Abraham; it was a point on Hagar's flight from Sarah, the wife of Abraham. The Arabic name for the town of Hebron is « EI Khalil » - the Friend. Abraham bought there the cave of Makpela as a burial-place for Sarah. In the cave of Makpela Sarah, Abraham, lsaac, Rebecca, Leah were buried and finally Jacob, whose body was brought back from Egypt. In Jerusalem « Maison d'Abraham » recalls the hospitality of Abraham to the three angels. Jewish tradition (already recorded by Josephus) identifies the Sacred Rock (now covered with the Dome of the Rock) with Mount Moriah upon which Abraham had prepared the sacrifice of his son Isaac.

Abraham and Mount Moriah: Abraham was ordered to offer Isaac in the land of Moriah, which was three days' distance from Beersheva and visible from afar. Early tradition identifies Mount Moriah with the place where Solomon built the Temple. Josephus reports this tradition (Ant. I, 226). The biblical story left the location of Moriah deliberately vague. The Samaritans locate the sacrifice of Abraham on their holy mountain Mount Gerizim.

Abraham and the Oak of Mamre. Mamre is a topographical name. The site was called the terebinths of Mamre (Gen 18, 1). At present there is no terebinth or oak in the Enclosure of the High Place of the Friend (Haram Ramet el Khalil). The Vulgate translates the place as Convallis Mambre. The site, Haram Ramet el Khalil, is about 3 Kms north of Hebron. There is the well, dug by the patriarch Abraham. Under the oaks of Mamre, Abraham received the three Angels. Isaac also received at Mamre. There David was anointed King (2 Sam 5, 1). There Absalom, affecting to bring a sacrifice to God, proclaimed himself king in Hebron (2 Sam 15, 7-37). Herod the Great erected the Enclosure. After the first Jewish revolt (66-70) Mamre became a market centre. Emperor Hadrian (117-138) crushed in 134 the second Jewish Revolt, that was led by Bar Kochba, and in the market of Mamre sold the Jews into slavery. Eutropia, mother-in-law of Constantine, made a pilgrimage to Mamre, and was shocked by the superstitious practices. Her son-in-law ordered a « house of prayer, to be erected in honour of the Holy Trinity.

Abraham, the Patriarch, and Lot, the Just, and the deposit of Andrew, the Apostle. In Golgotha prope Bethlehem (perhaps near Bethel) the memory... on Oct 9. The Greek Synaxaries have the feast on Oct 9: Abraham, the patriarch and Lot, the Just. See: Saller S. and Bagatti, The town of Nebo (Khirbet Mekhayyat), Jerusalem, 1949 p. 193-199.

St Abraham Convent: is situated on the east side of the atrium before the entrance to the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. Under this convent is a big cistern. The convent of St Abraham belongs to the Greek Orthodox. In the convent of St Abraham, in the upper part, is a chapel where the Anglicans can function with permission of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch. To this place was attached the story of Abraham's ram.

Abraham, Isaac and Jacob: On the Sunday before the Nativity of Christ, is the commemoration of the Patriarchs, according to the Palestinian-Georgian calendar.

Abraham, archbishop. An inscription in the Greek Orthodox parish church of Abud mentions archbishop Abraham. The inscription refers to the year 450 of the hegira, i.e. 1058 Christian Era.

Abraham, bishop of the Armenians in Jerusalem (638-669). At the time of the Arab conquest, he stood for the rights of the Armenians in the Holy Places.

Abraham 11, Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem. Died 1192; he was a contemporary of Saladin. Abraham 11 has his burial site in the Saint James Cathedral of the Armenian Compound in Jerusalem.

Abraham, deacon. Tombstone (21) in Museum of Flagellation.

Abraham Father, Armenian. He carved the wooden door in the entrance of the colonnaded nave of the Basilica in Bethlehem in the year 624 Hegira (= 1227 AD).

Abraham, the Armenian candle-vendor. An inscription in the Armenian cemetery outside Sion Gate in Jerusalem reads: Let this cross intercede with God for the candle-vendor Abraham. In this grave 1 will await with hope for Your second coming. Summon me to Your glory.

Abramios, hegumen of the monastery of Nea in Jerusalem. Successor of Eudoxius. (John Moschus, Pratum Spirituale, nr. 187)

Abramios, episc. Cratiensis, January 30. Abramios, bishop of Cratea and monk in Palestine, died 553, Dec 6. The reason why he is venerated on Jan. 30 is unknown. He is also venerated on Dec 6 in the Georgian liturgy; on Dec 7 in the Greek synaxaries.

Abramius. He was the architect of the Greek convent of St. Mary on the Mount of Olives in the 6th century. He belonged to the clergy of the Nea. On the western outskirts of Jerusalem, on the western slope of Nahal Raqafot is Kusr el Bramia, the Stonehouse of Abramius, in local parlance Havat Nanazir, the Monk's Farm. There Roman tombs were discovered in December 1972. (Atiqot, English Series, XI, 1976, p. 77)

Abrokonyos (Procopius?) of Jerusalem. This soldier of the Lord Jesus Christ became a martyr. This saint was born in the city of Jerusalem, and the name of this father was Christopher, which is, being interpreted 'Bearer of Christ', and he was a Christian. The name of his mother was Theodosia, and she was a worshipper of idols. Procopius became governor of Antioch during the reign of Diocletian (284-305). There he was martyred. The Ethiopian Synaxarium salutes him on the 14th day of the month Hamle.

Abrokoros, see: Prochorus. One of the seventy (or seventy-two) disciples. Abrokoros is the Ethiopian name of Prochorus.

Absalon: See Peter Absalon.

Abukir (Ethiopian name for Cyrus).
See: Cyrus the monk and his son John, martyrs.

See Justus at Abundus.

Abu-Saadia, Melkite bishop of Jerusalem.
(See: Saada)

Abyssinian priest.
He suffered martyrdom during the 16th century (probably 1597) in the courtyard before the entrance to the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.

Acacius, St. and Codratus, St. They were converted at the martyrdom of St. Paul and of his sister Juliana in Ptolemais (Acre) under Emperor Aurelian (271-275). Acacius and Codratus are remembered by Greek synaxaries on March 4; the Palestinian-Georgian calendar mentions them on March 22. - Another Acacius of Nicomedia is venerated in the building (= church, monastery) of Passarion, the priest, on May 10.

Achaikus. One of the 70 disciples, in the Greek list. Not named in the Roman martyrology.

Achardus de Aroasia, prior Templi Domini. (Vita S. Joh., episcopus Morinorum) AA.SS.: in the 12th century, Jan 27.

Achillius of Larissa. He was born in the second half of the 3rd century. He went to Jerusalem, to Rome, and later to Greece, where he lived in Thessaly. He was elected bishop of Larissa, and attended the Council of Nicaea in 325. The Greek liturgy has his feast on May 15.

Acre, Martyrs of Acre. In May 1291 Acre fell to Sultan Malik el Ashraf. Franciscan and Dominican Fathers and Sisters Poor Clares were killed. Acre was not considered by the Orthodox Jews to belong to the Land of Promise. Acre Jews buried their dead in Haifa.

Adalbertus of Prague, St. He began his pilgrimage to Palestine in 990. (Vita S. Adalb., c. III, Nr. 14 - vita ejusdem altera, c. III, Nr. 12. - AA.SS.: April 23)

Adam, the first human being. Adam has, since the Evangelium (apocryphal) of Nicodem, been considered a saint. A legend (perhaps before Christ) told that the skull of Adam was buried in Jerusalem, under the hollow rock of Calvary, in the 'Grotto of Adam'. Adam is not listed in the Martyrologium Romanum. Among the just who are commemorated on the first Sunday of Advent in the Byzantine liturgy figures Adam. The Ethiopian church celebrates the death of Adam and Eva. In the martyrology of Rabban Sliba, Adam and Eve, together with their sons, Seth and Enos, are celebrated in the week after Easter. The Armenian liturgy has the memory of Adam and of all the saints who 'coming out of the tombs, went into the Holy city and appeared to many' (Mt 27, 53). This memory is on Wednesday in the 4th week after Easter. A Greek-Slavonic Menology has the expulsion of Adam from the Paradise on February 4. In the Western liturgy Adam did not receive a feast. Adam is mentioned in the Canon of the Mass; there his fault appears and Adam is there the antitype of Christ. The Ethiopian church has as a feast the death of Adam and Eva. The Martyrologium of Rabban Sliba names Adam and Eva and Seth and Enos in the week after Easter.

Adam and his body in Jerusalem. Angels sealed the doors of the Cave with the seals of Adam and Eve and Seth. Noah took Adam's body into the ark and brought it to Mount Ararat. Then Shem and Melchisedek, an angel of the Lord guiding them, took it from its place and buried it in 'the place of the skull’and Melchisedek continued to minister unto it with incense and offerings. Christ redeemed Adam by His death. Salutation to Adam and salutation to Eva, in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 6th day of the month of Miyazya (eighth month).

Grotto of Adam: The roof of the Calvary-knoll is fissured. The fissure penetrates into the so-called 'Grotto of Adam', a cave under Calvary. It is not excluded that this fissure existed before the death of Christ and that the fissure is related by Matthew 27, 51-53 with the death of Christ. The name 'Grotto of Adam' reflects the legend that the skull of Adam was buried in Jerusalem, under Calvary, in the 'Grotto of Adam'. An Armenian mosaic in the wall, west of the court that leads to the Rotunde of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, portrays the blood of Christ which drips from the feet of the Crucified, and descends through the fissure and rests on the skull of Adam. Saint Paul seems to know the legend. He represents Christ as a second Adam, who died for Jews and Romans (Rom 5, 123).

Adam and Eve and the village Umm Safa: A legend tells: Adam and Eve, after their expulsion from Paradise, came to the village of Umm Safa, Palestine, and covered themselves there with figleaves. Umm Safa is famous for its figs.

Adam, Blessed, confessor. On Mount Sion he accepted Lavinius into the Franciscan Order. Probably he died in the autumn of 1345. The Martyrologium Franciscanum remembers him on October 25.

Adamantius (=of diamond), surname of Origen.

Adamnanus. Pilgrim Arculf made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land at about AD 670. On his journey back to Europe, pilgrim Arculf told his story to Adamnanus, abbot of a monastery of Scotland, who put the story in writing.

Adamnanus. He is mentioned, round 670, as visiting Palestine. (AA.SS. April 8)

Adas, a teacher. Gospel of Nicodemus XIV, 1: Phinees, a priest, and Adas, a teacher, and Angaeus, a levite, had seen Jesus, with his disciples, sitting on the mount, which is named Mamilch.

Adenauer Konrad, chancelor of West Germany, from 1949 to 1963. He visited the Holy Land before 1966. (Died April 19, 1967)

Aderaldus, St., Trecensis. (Vita S. Aderaldi, n. 7, 11-14), He came to Palestine round 1000. (AA.SS. October 20)

Adjutor (the helper), Sanctus (vita S. Adjutoris, n. 1-4); Adjutor is mentioned in AA.SS. (April 30) in the time of the first Crusade, 1096-1099.

Adolphus: Theodoricus, apud Rhenum ortus, writes in 1172 in 'Libellus de Locis Sanctis': ubi (in Acheldemah) in die sancto palmarum quendam fratrum nostrum defunctum, nomine Adolphus, de Colonia natum sepelivimus. (Tobler, 9)

Adrian Osmolowsky, servant of God, Franciscan. He was born at Antonovca, district of Cerikov, province of Mohilev, in 1838. In 1861 he entered the Franciscan convent of Minsk. This convent was suppressed by the Russian Government in 1863. In 1866 he went into exile to Palestine, and served the Custody of the Holy Land. In 1876 he came to Venice. After a stay in Italy of 48 years, he died on April 9, 1924, in Lonigo (Italy).

Adrianus of Baniyas, lived during the persecutions by the governor Firmilianus. He was decapitated in Caesarea, Palestine, in 308. The Roman Martyrology has his feast on March 5-1 the Greek liturgy on Feb. 3.

Adso, Dervensis abbatis, et Hilduinus, comes Arceiacensis. They came to Palestine in 992. (Miracula S. Bercharii, 1, 11, c. II, n. 14; AA.SS.: October 16)

Aedesius, Martyr in Alexandria, 306, drowned during the reign of Emperor Galerius Maximianus (285-310). Aedesius was the brother of Apphianus, martyr. Aedesius is mentioned in the Martyrologium Romanum on April 2. His memory is on April 8. His brother Apphianus was martyred in Caesarea, Palestine.

Aedesius of Tyre, Lebanon. He was in Ethiopia, together with Frumentius. Aedesius departed to the country of Tyre to see his kinsfolk. (Ethiopian Synaxarium, Hamle 26.)

Aegidius, St. He came to Palestine in the 10th century, together with Arcanus, St. (AA. $S. September 1)

Aegidius, St. The 'Miracula S. Aegidii' (round 1188) mention the Persians who fought near the city of Tripoli. (Analecta Bollandiana ]X, 394)

Aegidius of Assisi, Blessed, Franciscan. He came to Palestine round 1250. (Vita prima B. Aegidii, c. [, n. 7; AA.SS.: April 23). Aegidius died at Perugia in 1261.

Aegion, Saint. He lived in the monastery of Khirbet Giohdum, east of Bethlehem. An inscription of a mosaic that has been discovered in Khirbet Makhrum (the ruins are perhaps of the convent of St. Theognius) mentions Aegion, hegumenos. Perhaps the Aegion, monk of Scete, is to be identified with Aegion, hegumenos. (V. Corbo, Gli scavi di Khirbet Siyar el Ghanam, Jerusalem, 1955)

Aegion, Blessed: Memory of Blessed Aegion and Saint Dometius. The Greek synaxaries mention Aegion the anchorite on Aug 16 and Aug 17. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar (on Aug 13 and Aug 14) tells us that Aegion was at Scete in Egypt.

Aelia Capitolina. Emperor Hadrian (117-138) renamed Jerusalem Aelia Capitolina. Aelia in honour of his own family; Capitolina in honour of the Capitolium in Rome.

Aelianus, martyr in the city of Amman Balcani, under Diocletian (284-313). He was martyred on Nov 28, but his feast was kept on Aug 10, the day of the dedication of his oratory. Aelianus is mentioned in the Georgian liturgy on Nov 26 and Nov 28, together with lrenarchus. Aelianus is named in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar also on Aug 10, 12, 14. The city of Amman Balcani is the ancient Philadelphia, the modern Amman. The 'Passio Eliani' speaks of a church in Amman, near the gate of Jerash. (Bagatti B., Liber Annuus, 1973)

Aelius. To be identified with Aelianus.

Aeneas of Gaza. He criticized in an indirect manner the biograph Philostrat who wrote the life of Apollonios of Tyana. Aeneas of Gaza reproached that Apollonios for the transmigration of souls referred himself to the far-off Indians. (Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum, Jg 17, 1974, S. 57)

Aerius (?), bishop. He is commemorated on Dec 8 in the Anastasis Church, according to the Georgian liturgy. - Perhaps the name Aerius is a corruption of Ambrosius.

Aetheria. This Christian noblewoman (nun?) journeyed about the beginning of the 5th century through Egypt, Palestine, and Asia Minor. Probably she enjoyed the friendship of the imperial court. A text of her pilgrimage, written in Latin, was discovered in an 11th century manuscript at Arezzo, Italy, in 1884. The journey begins in Sinai. Visits were paid to Mount Nebo and to ldumea. The last 26 chapters are concerned with Jerusalem and its liturgy.

Aetius, bishop of Diospolis (Lydda) was at the Council of Nicaea in 325.

Aexibius = Auxibius

Afnin, the archangel. He is one of the 99 archangels, who together with Surafel guard the throne of glory. Of him Enoch saith that he goes round that house. Surafel, and Kirubel and Afnin: 'These are the angels who never sleep, and who guard the throne of His glory. ' Salutation to this trinity of Angels who guard the throne of God, (Ethiopian Synaxarium, Khedar 8 (=third month, Nov 7-Dec 6).

Agabarus: see Abgarus, the King of Edessa.

Agabius of Gaza. On this day (= 19th of Magabit, seventh month March 7-April 5) are commemorated in the Ethiopian Synaxarium the following martyrs: Alexander the Egyptian, Alexander, and Agabius from the city of Gaza, and Amilas (Nimolas) from the city of Bunitos, and Dionysius from the city of Tripolis, and Ramelos and Thalasius from the vineyards of Egypt. These seven men mad(a pact together in Messianic love, and they came to the governor of the country of Caesarea of the Peleshtim (Philistines), and they confessed our Lord Jesus Christ before the governor in the days of the infidel Diocletian. He tortured them, and they received crowns of martyrdom in the kingdom of heaven.

Agabus, the Apostle, the Prophet at Antioch. He was a prophet from Judaea. He foretold the great dearth throughout all the world which came to pass in the days of Emperor Claudius Caesar (Acts 11, 28); he foretold the arrest of the Apostle Paul by the Jews (Acts 21, 10). The Roman Martyrology commemorates Agabus on Feb 13. The Greek liturgy does it on April 8. The Ethiopian Synaxarium relates on Yakatit 4, that the Jews stoned Agabus in Jerusalem. A Jewess confessed 'I believe in the God of this saint'. She was stoned to death and she was buried with saint Agabus in one grave.

Agape (Love). Daughter of Sophia (Wisdom). She is commemorated on October 25 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. Sophia, Pistis, Elpis and Agape are mentioned as martyrs on Aug 1.

Agapius of Jerusalem, archbishop of Jerusalem. He received and approved a copy of the table for the reckoning of the Epacts, in the days of Pope Victor (189-199). In the Ethiopian Synaxarium his memory is on Khedar 10.

Agapius, the martyr. He was born in Caesarea, Palestine. He was arrested by the governor Urbanus and was thrown to the wild beasts and finally he suffered martyrdom by being drowned in the sea during the reign of Emperor Maximianus (305-311). The Greek liturgy and the Martyrologium Romanum have his feast on Nov 19. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has the feast on Nov 22 in the Church of the Resurrection. The Melkite liturgy has on March 15 Agapius and seven companions: Timolaos of Pontus; Dionysius of Tripoli, Phoenicia; Romylos, subdeacon of Diospolis; Paesis and Alexander, both of Egypt; the seventh is Alexander of Gaza. They fastened themselves with chains and presented themselves to the governor Urbanus, who decapitated them on March 24, 304.

Agathangelus and Cassianus, Blessed, Martyrs of the Capucin Order. They visited Palestine in 1637 on their journey to Ethiopia. They were martyred in Ethiopia. Their feast is special to the Franciscan Order. In Mart. Rom. they are mentioned on Aug 7.

Agathodorus, St., martyr. He was sent, together with Eugenius, Capiton, Elpid(i)lus to convert Scythia and Cherson. They were sent by the bishop of Jerusalem, Hermon (302-312). The four were killed by the pagans. In the Greek liturgy the feast is on March 7.

Agilus, St., vice-count. He came to Palestine round 587. In the AA.SS. he is mentioned on Aug 30.

Agradinus, bishop of Jerusalem. see Praxius.

Agrippias. Emperor Augustus donated Anthedon to Herod the Great; Herod changed its name in Agrippias, in order to please Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. This minister of Emperor Augustus visited Palestine in 15 BC. Herod accompanied Vipsanius on this visit. Vipsanius ordered the drawing of a map of the World. He died in 12 BC. The map was finished in 7 BC. Anthedon is on the coast northwest of Gaza.

Ahadabui and Qamicho. Round 204 two candidates for the seat of Seleucie-Ctesiphon were sent to Antioch. They were considered as Persian spies and they were followed. Ahadabui could escape, came to Jerusalem where he was consecrated a bishop. Qamicho (or Yawicho) was arrested and together with his host, who was himself a local bishop, was crucified before the gate of the Church of the Apostles at Antioch. (Livre de la Tour).

Ahasverus, the Wandering Jew. For the house of Ahasverus see: Pierotti Hermes.

Ahijah, priest of the house of Eli (1 Sam 14, 3). In Shiloh, during the reign of Saul, Ahijah may have been the priest who inquired of God first whether to advance against the Philistines and then, upon failing to obtain a response, provoked God's displeasure (1 Sam 14, 36).

Ahijah, the Shilonite. Israelite prophet during the latter part of Solomon's reign and during the concurrent reigns of king Rehoboam and king Jeroboam. At a secret meeting with Jeroboam, Ahijah the prophet of Shilo(n) tore Jeroboam's new garment (or his own?) into 12 pieces as a symbol of the 12 tribes and gave him ten. The kingdom would be divided: only one other tribe (Benjamin), beside Judah, would remain loyal to the house of David (1 Kings 11, 29-39). Perhaps Adonijah expected Jeroboam to restore the ancient central sanctuary of his native town, Shiloh. But Jeroboam set up golden calves in the sanctuaries at Bethel and Dan. Ahijah is said to have died a martyr's death at the hands of Abijah, son of Rehoboam and king of Judah. In the Menology of Basilius II, Ahijah is mentioned as a saint. The ‘Vitae Prophetarum' claims that Ahijah is buried in Shiloh, near the oak of Shiloh. A Jewish tradition seeks the tomb of Ahijah in Bethel (Isaak Helo, 1334).

Ailwinus Malverniensis. He came to Palestine round 1090. (Wilhelmus Malmesb., Vita S. WuIstani, c. III, n. 21; AA.SS. Jan 19)

Aitherus, St. confessor (Greeks: March 7) The bishop of Jerusalem sent Aitherus to Cherson. Aitherus asked in Constantinople the help of Emperor Constantine and built a church in Cherson. He came to Constantinople to thank the Emperor. On the return to Cherson, Aitherus was thrown by a storm into the mouth of the river Danapris and there he was drowned. Aitherus is mentioned with the other missionaries: Basil of Cherson, Ephrem of Scythia, who were sent before him, and with Eugenius, Agathodorus, Capiton, and Elpidi(u)s, who were killed before him.

Akayros (Abgar), King of Roha (Edessa) to whom our Lord sent an indestructible portrait of Himself. He is honoured by the Ethiopian Synaxarium, Takhshash 29.

Akrates: is the Ethiopian name for Crete.

Akylina. She was born in Biblos (Lebanon) and lived during the reign of Diocletian (284-313). She was the daughter of Eutolmius, a nobleman. At the age of five, she was baptized; at the age of twelve, she instructed others in the Christian faith. She was tortured and finally beheaded. The Greek liturgy has her feast on June 13.

AI-Afdal (1094-1121). This Armenian was the son of Badr el-Jamil. From Egypt he twice attempted to reconquer Palestine from the Crusaders: once in August 1099 (Ascalon), a second time in 1105. Twice he failed.

Alamundar. Monks were martyred in Palestine in 504 on the command of Alamundar. Their feast is on Feb 19 (Martyr. Romanum, and AA.SS.) - Alamundar was a sheikh of the Bedouins of the Persian Empire, he devastated the camps of the Christian Bedouins, (in 504), which were in the Judaean desert. Afterwards Alamundar was baptised in 513, and passed to the Byzantines. The AA.SS. mention him on Feb 8. (Cyrillus Scythop., Vita S. Joh. Silentiarii, c. II, nr. 13: May 13)

Alberca y Torres, see Nicolaus Maria Alberca, Blessed, Franciscan, martyred Damascus 1860. Feast on July 10.

Alberga. see Nicola Alberga.

Albert of Aachen. During the Crusades in the 11th century, he wrote 'Book of Travels' about the Holy Land.

Albert of Sarteano, Blessed, Franciscan. He was born round 1384. In 1415 he joined the Franciscan Order. From 1435 to 1437 he worked in the Holy Land. As a delegate of Pope Eugene IV, Albert made a second journey to the Near East in 1439. He contacted the Coptic Patriarch John of Alexandria, and so prepared the way for the reunion realized at the Council of Florence in 1442. From 1442 to 1443 Albert was vicar general of the Franciscan Order. He died in Milan, Aug 15, 1450. His cult has not been publicly approved, but he is honoured in the Franciscan Order as blessed. His memory is there on August 15.

Albert I, King of Belgium (1909-1934). Albert and his wife, Elisabeth, visited Jerusalem privately in 1933. They were the guests of the High Commissioner. King Albert and the Queen accorded an audience to the Reverend Father Custos. The Custos rewarded them with the Golden Cross of the Holy Land. The visit was in the first days of April 1933, during the Holy Week and Easter (Easter was 16 april, 1933) -- Albert had come before to Palestine on March 2, 1930; he flew over Jerusalem by plane on March 22, 1930, in the direction of Bagdad. In 1900 His Holiness Pope Leo XIll instituted a decoration called the Holy Cross for Pilgrims to the Holy Land. The right to confer this decoration-cross (gold, silver, bronze) pertains to the Custos of the Holy Land. The medal bears the image of Pope Leo XIII (1887-1903).

Albertus, abbas Pontidenis, and Henricus Cremonensis. They came to Palestine before 1095. (AA.SS. September 5)

Albertus Carmelita, St (falsum). He visited Palestine in 1295. (AA.SS. 'August 7)

Albertus, Guillipatricius, St. and his seven companions. They visited Palestine round 754. (AA.SS. Jan 8)

Albertus Senensis, St. (Slivanus Razzius, Vita S. Alberti, c. I, n. 2) He visited Palestine before 1181. (AA.SS. Jan 7)

Albertus, St., Patriarch of Jerusalem (1205-1214). First he was bishop of Vercelli, afterwards (1205) he became patriarch of Jerusalem. He gave in 120711209 a rule to the Order of the Carmelite Fathers. He was murdered in 1214. Albertus was knived by the master of the Hospital of the Holy Ghost in Acre, whom he had dismissed for his bad life. The Rule of the Carmelites was approved by Pope Honorius III in 1226. The AA.SS. mention Albertus on April 8. His feast was on Sept 16, 25, 26, and on Aug 4.

Albertus of Vercelli = Albertus of Jerusalem, Patriarch (1205-1214)

Albianus. He visited Palestine round 380. (S. Nilus, Oratio in Albianum) AA.SS. Jan 13.

Albina. She visited Palestine in 417. The AA.SS. mention: Saint Melania, junior, Pinianus et Albina (Jan 7; Jan 31; Dec 31)

Albright WY. archaeologist. The former 'American School of Oriental Research' is renamed Albright Institute. It is north of Herod's Gate.

Aleldis, Scharembecana, Blessed. This saint woman of Belgium prayed for St. Louis, who was a crusader in 1249. (Vita B. Aleidis, c. III, n. 27) The AA.SS. mention Aleidis on June 11.

Alempeyas (Olympius), who was called Paul, was one of the 72 disciples. He became a martyr under Nero. He is commemorated in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 6th day of the month Hamle.

Alenar de Selingan, a Norwegian knight, at Acre round 1250. According to Joinville, Alenar (Elenar) de Selingan with his companions, beguiled the time till they should be fighting the Saracens by slaying the lions in the desert.

Alexander. He was from Asia Minor, he came to Palestine before AD 213. He was martyred under the Decian persecution. Decius was emperor from 248 till 251. In 250 Decius began the persecution. This Alexander is also called Alexander of Cappadocia.

Alexander Acoemetus, St. He visited Palestine before 400. (Vita, auct. anonymo). AA.SS.: Jan 15.

Alexander, bishop, and Theodulus, martyrs. Round 274, Jerusalem; Dec 18 (AA.SS. Auct. Flori: Mart.)

Alexander, capellanus Stephani Blesensis. Chron. S. Petri Vivi -AA.SS.: April 23. Alexander was capellanus during the first crusade 1096-1099.

Alexander John, martyr, blessed. This Franciscan lay brother was from Apulia, Italy. He went to Spain. In 1550, together with the laybrother, John Zuaze, he joined the Mission of the Holy Land. Both were imprisoned in Cairo. A delegate of the King of France obtained their liberation. It seems that afterwards Alexander John was arrested again and that he was burned to death, in 1552. The Martyrologium Franciscanum has his feast on July 28.

Alexander, St., martyr, Caesarea, Palestine, 259. Together with Priscus and Malchus, March 28 (Mart. Rom).

Alexander of Caesarea, Palestine, St., Martyr. March 15, 23, 24. Together with Agapius and companions, martyred in 304. Probably to be identified with Alexander of Egypt, who was martyred in 304.

Alexander of Egypt. Martyred in Caesarea, Palestine in 304. This Alexander was from Egypt. His feast is on March 24.

Alexander, a second Alexander, martyr Caesarea, Palestine, in 304. Feast day March 24. This Alexander was from Gaza. The Ethiopian Synaxarium commemorates him on the 19th of the month Magabit.

Alexander of Edessa, St. Confessor. In the Orient his feast is on July 17, and March 17; the Monophysites in Syria venerate him on March 22. His parents married him against his will; he left his bride, with her connivance, on the day of the wedding, and went to Palestine. He died in Edessa after a long life as a hermit. His life was written between 450-475 in Syria. The 'legendary' Alexius came to Rome where he is said to have lived 17 years under a staircase. Only after his death was he identified. This Alexius is the patron of the Alexian Brothers (founded in 1469). The 'Alexius of Rome' has his feast in the Roman Martyrology on July 17. - Only in some versions Alexis made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, instead of going to Edessa. Tentations by the demon are on the way to Jerusalem. Gaston Paris thinks that the visit to Jerusalem has been inserted, because in the Middle Ages every pilgrim visited Jerusalem. (Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire, T. 51, 1973, Nr 3; T. 53, 1975, p. 679-695).

Alexander of Jerusalem, St., bishop of Jerusalem, martyr. Feast March 18 and Jan 30. He was trained in Alexandria where he became the friend of Origen. After becoming bishop of an not known see in Cappadocia about 200, he was imprisoned about 204 during the persecution of Septimius Severus and not released until 211. In the following year Alexander was made coadjutor and later successor of the aged Narciss (died 222?), bishop of Jerusalem, both unusual proceedings at that early date. At Jerusalem Alexander founded the library which was later used by Eusebius of Caesarea in preparing his great history of the early Church. When Origen was condemned by the bishop of Alexandria, Alexander invited him to Jerusalem, ordained him, and put him in charge of the teaching of Scripture and theology in the diocese. Alexander died in prison at Caesarea, Palestine, during the persecution of Decius (died 251). In Greece his feast is on Dec 12. The AA.SS. has his feast on March 18.

Alexander, the senator. He built the Church in honour of St. Stephen in the valley of Cedron (Kidron). This Church was consecrated round 38. (P. Vailhé, Echos d'Orient, 1907, 60)

Alexander, the son of Simon the Crossbearer. (Mk 15, 21)

Alexandra. She was the wife of Emperor Diocletian (284-313), who put to death George of Lydda. Alexandra was converted by St. George. Her husband, the Emperor, imprisoned her. In great anger he tried to throttle her, then he had her executed. She suffered martyrdom together with her three servants, Apollus, Isaakius and Kodratus. The Greek liturgy has her feast on April 21.

Alexius I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor, 1081-1118. He was born in 1048. The arrival of the first crusade was a setback for him, and he failed to assert his authority over the new Latin principalities in Syria and Palestine. He did, however, regain some former Byzantine territory in Western and Southeast Asia Minor, and in 1108 forced the Norman Bohemund of Antioch to admit his overlordship. The AA. SS mention Alexius on Sept 2.

Ali ben Yehya al Armani. This Armenian general fought against the Greeks round 848.

Aline, Sister of Sion. She was Superior in the Convent Ecce Homo, Jerusalem. She died at Eilath on Sept 20, 1971.  All apostles: The Greek synaxaries have the feast on June 30; the Georgian liturgy also on June 30.

All blind and paralytic, deaf and infirm who have been healed by the Lord. On April 17 in the Lectionary of Paris.

All Fathers (350) of the Church who assisted at the 7th oecumenial Council of Nicaea in 787 against the iconoclasts. Their memory is on the Sunday between Oct 11 and 17 in the Melkite liturgy.

All Patriarchs of Jerusalem. They are commemorated in the Anastasis-Church on Sept 27. In the Palestinian-Georgian calendar all Patriarchs of Jerusalem from James to Modestus are mentioned on May 17.

All Patriarchs of the Old Testament. In the 'Menée Géorgien' of Dumbarton Oaks (a book with the offices of the fixed feasts) are included on Jan 3: Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. - The Syriac and Coptic martyrologies add: 'the three companions in the furnace, the prophet Daniel and all other patriarchs'. - The Armenian calendar mentions in August: Adam, Abel, Joseph, Seth, Henoch, Noah, Melchisedech, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Aaron, Elezar, Josue, Samuel, and the other patriarchs.

All saintly Fathers of the monastery of St. Sabas: Jan 24 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar.

All saints who have given hospitality to the apostles: April 16 in the Lectionary of Paris.

All Saints' Day: November 1, in the Roman church. The Eastern churches have the feast on the first Sunday after Pentecost. - Nine choirs of Saints: Apostles, Forefathers, Patriarchs, Prophets, Bishops, Martyrs, Kings, Women martyrs, Women virgins. Ranks in the Saints: Angels, Kings of the Old Testament, Prophets, Forefathers, Apostles, Hierarchs, Fathers of the Church, bishops, martyrs and monks and hermits, saintly Kings, saintly women.

Allegra Gabriel Maria, Franciscan priest. He was born in Sicily, he died In Hong Kong 1976. He teached at Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Jerusalem, in 1973. The action (causa) for his beatification has been introduced in Rome.

Allenby, British General. He held his formal entry into Jerusalem through. the Jaffa Gate itself on December 11, 1917. Jerusalem capitulated on Dec 9, 1917. A bridge over the river Jordan, 8 kms east of Jericho is called Allenby Bridge. - Jaffa Gate and entrance by a Christian: General Allenby entered through the Jaffa Gate, not through the breach of 1898, on foot. Throughout the ceremony no Allied flag was flown. After the reception Allenby left the city by the Jaffa Gate, and outside the Jaffa Gate he mounted his horse. Th e photographs showing General Allenby leaving Jerusalem on a horse, with the city wall as a background, had difficulty in passing the censorship, but the pictures were finally released because the rampart wall at his back proved he was leaving the city, not entering. (Spafford -Vester B, Our Jerusalem. p. 261)

Allyre of Clermont = Illidius of Clermont.

Allyrius, St. The Hospitalers, after the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre received in 1213 St Allyrius. (AA.SS. Oct 23)

Al-Nimri Hanna. This priest of the Latin rite was shot down by terrorists on February 26, 1973, in Gaza.

Alphanus, St., archiepiscopus Salernitanus. He is mentioned before 1085. (AA.SS. October 9)

Alphaeus / Alpheus The father of Levi (Matthew) in the Gospel of Mark 2, 14. Greek liturgy represents Alphaeus as 'the brother' of the evangelist Matthew. Greek liturgy venerates him on May 26.

Alpheus The father of the apostle James the Less. This Alpheus is to be distinguished from Alphaeus, the father of Levi. Alpheus was also the husband of Maria Cleophas. - The Greek liturgy has only one Alphaeus (May 26).

Alpheus and Zacchaeus, martyrs in Caesarea, Palestine. Nov 17 of the first year of the persecution (303) (De Mart. Pal. 1, 5). On the same date, according to Eusebius (De Mart. Pal. 11, 1-5) S. Romanus was martyred in Antioch. The three martyrs were remembered together on Nov 17 by the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. Alpheus served as a deacon in Gadara, East-Jordan. The Roman Martyrology has his memory (together with Zacchaeus) on Nov 17; the Greek synaxaries on Nov 18.

Alphonse XIII, ex-king of Spain. He visited Jerusalem privately, during a cruising-tour, 1932, March 2.

Alphonsine (Sister) of the Rosary. Soultaneh Danil Ghattas. She was born 1843 in Jerusalem. In 1858 she entered the Congregation des Soeurs de St. Joseph de l'Apparition, as the first Palestinian member. In 1883 she joined the new erected (1880) Arab Congregation of the Sisters of the Rosary, which was founded by Joseph Tannous. Sister Alphonsine founded the convent at Bethlehem in 1893. She died in Ain-Karem, March 25, 1927. Her visions of the Holy Virgin contributed to the foundation of the congregation Sisters of the Rosary.

Altmannus, St., Pataviensis. (Monachus Gottwicensis, Vita S. Altm., c. I, n. 3-5; - Vita altera S. Altm., c. I, n. 6-8; Nota de peregrinatione S. Altm.) In Palestine in 1064 (AA.SS.: Aug 8; Oct 20)

Alvaro B. Dominican, died 1420. After his return from the Holy Land, he erected in his convent a series of chapels with répresentations of the way of the Passion.

Alypsios, a Jew of the Diaspora and an adversary of Paul. He is called'Hebrew' (2 Cor 11, 22). Alypsios was from Tiberias (Corpus Inscript. Judaicarum 502)

Amadeus IX of Savoy, count, blessed (March 30), born in 1435, count in 1465. Amadeus was married to a daughter of Charles VII, king of France. In 1469 Amadeus on account of illness abdicated in favor of his wife. Amadeus was a benefactor of the poor. He died in 1472 in Vercelli (Italy). His cult (as patron of Christian rulers) was approved in 1677.

Amadori G. Collected fauna and flora for Museum Flagellation

Amalric I, king of Jerusalem (1162-1174). son of King Fulk.

Amalricus, eighth patriarch (1158-1181) of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem.

Amandus Tranensis in Canonizatio S. Nicolai, c. II, n. 64, mentions a miracle during the second crusade, in 1142. (AA.SS. June 2)

Amandus, St., and Berthaidus, St. They were in Palestine before 533. (AA.SS. June 16)

Amaretch Wolzero Walulu. This lady rented land in Jericho in 1921, she became a nun and joined the Ethiopian community of Jerusalem. She died at Deir es-Sultan in Jerusalem in 1969. The rented land was bought in 1953 and a convent of the Ethiopian community was erected in Jericho.

Amator, hermit of Bethlehem. Round 1000 (AA.SS. Aug 20)

Amba Alo (Inscription): A stone with the figure of a man and the letters AMBA ALO is mentioned in the ruin of Umm er-Ru'us. (H. Vincent, Revue Biblique 7, 1898, 614; 8, 1899, 452-457)

Ambrosius of Saxano, servant of God. During 35 years he was sacristan in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. He died 1669, August 28.

Anide Michael, Abba. He was a hermit who lived in the first World War (1914-1918) at the River Jordan near the spot, where according to tradition Christ was baptized by John. In order to save him from the dangers of the war, the British brought him to Jerusalem, but he returned to his cell at the Jordan. His tomb is at the monastery of the Ethiopians (Holy Trinity) at the river Jordan.

American Missionaries: cemetery on Mount Sion in Jerusalem. The plot was bought from the Greek community. Afterwards the cemetery was bought from the American Missionaries by the Franciscan Custody. In 1840 the small cemetery was protected by a permanent wall.

Ammonius and companions, with Dioscorus. They visited Palestine round 400. (AA.SS. Sept 14)

Amos, the father of lsaiah, the prophet. Amos is commemorated in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the fifth day of the intercalary month of Paguemen (Sept 3-7). On this day Amos died. He prophesied for fifty years and more, in the days of the kings of Israel, Joash, Amos and Uzziah.

Amos, St. Prophet whose discourses are preserved in the Book of Amos. They were delivered in Israel during the reign of Jeroboam II (786-746 BC), probably between 760-750 BC. A period of peace and prosperity is reflected in the book. Nothing is known of the personal life of the prophet Amos except from his book. He is called a shepherd of Tekoa in Judah, a shepherd and a dresser of figs. He was not a professional prophet, but he spoke in obedience to a divine call. Some, perhaps all, of his discourses were delivered at the shrine of Bethel, from which he was expelled by the priest Amaziah. The commemoration of Amos is on March 31. The Greeks have his memory on June 15. The Palestinian-Georgian Calendar on June 17.

Tomb of Amos. The 'Vitae Prophetarum' (the kernel of the book is before 70 CE) tells that the prophet Amos was wounded by the priest Amaziah from the shrine of Bethel, and by the son of Amaziah. Amos, wounded on the head, died, and was buried. A tomb is venerated in Tekoa (one of the caves). Hieronymus of Bethlehem visited the tomb of Amos in Tekoa. In the 6th century Cyril of Scythopolis mentions a monastery of the holy Amos.

Amos, patriarch of Jerusalem, 601 (AA. SS). Pope Gregory the Great (590-604) wrote a letter to priest Anastasius, hegumenos of the monastery Nea, and asked him to suppress the secular (= worldly) habitudes of the monks, and to made reconciliation with Patriarch Amos (594-601). (Patrol. Graeca., LXXVII, 890) The monastery Nea was next to the church Nea. Amos built a church of St. John, north of the walls of Jerusalem. This church existed in the early seventh century.

Amphianus, St. Martyr (April 2). He was born in the Province of Lydia during the reign of Maximianus (285-310). He became a christian in Beirut. He was imprisoned for his faith by the Governor Urbanus, and finally drowned. His martyrdom happened at Caesarea, Palestine, on April 2, in the third year of the persecution. (De Mart. Pal. IV, 15) In the Greek synaxaries Amphianus is commemorated, together with his brother Aedesius, on April 2 and on April 9. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar venerates Amphianus, together with St. Theodosia on April 2. Theodosia was martyred at Caesarea, Palestine, the day of Easter, April 2 of the fifth year of the persecution. Amphianus and Theodosia are mentioned on June 13 by the Palestinian-Georgian calendar.

Amplias, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Odessus-Moesia in the Greek list.

Ananias, St. (Martyrologium Romanum: Jan 25) the Christian disciple in Damascus. In a vision the Lord said to him: « Rise and go to the street called Straight, and inquire in the house of Judas for a man of Tarsus named Saul.... (Acts 9, 17-19). This happened about the year 36 CE. The Greek liturgy venerates Ananias on Oct 1; the Georgian liturgy on Oct 2 and on Dec 30; the Copts have his feast on June 21; the Roman liturgy on January 25. Ananias became the first bishop of Damascus, and he was stoned to death about 40.

Ananias in the fiery furnace; Aug 24. see Three Companions

Anastase. Hegumenos in Jerusalem of the monastery, which was called Nea. Pope Gregory the Great exhorts priest Amos to cooperate with the patriarch AMOS (594-601) of Jerusalem.

Anastasia, nun on the Mount of Olives, round 521. (AA.SS. June 2)

Anastasia. Died 600. Tombstone 12 in Museum Flagellation.

Anastasios Joshua Samuel, archbishop and head of the Syrian Orthodox Church in Jerusalem. He purchased in 1947 from a Bethlehem dealer Dead Sea Scrolls and sold them to the U.S. A.

Anastasius Armenius (7th century). He mentions two Armenian convents on the 'Mount of Galilee', which means here Mount of Olives in Jerusalem.

Anastasius, bishop of Areopolis, at Council of Ephesus in 449(?).

Anastasius, bishop. Three inscriptions at Jerash mention that Anastasius (6th cent) decorated with silver and with sculpted stones the Church of SS. Peter and Paul at Jerash.

Anastasius, bishop at Ashkelon. A mosaic discovered at Barnea, north of Ashkelon, mentions: 'in the year 602, in the month Artemisius, in the eighth indiction, under bishop Anastasius, the interior of the diaconicon was constructed from the foundations on, and was mosaiced. ' - The year 602 of the Ashkelon era corresponds to the year 4971498 of the Christian Era. (Bagatti, Ascalon e Majuma di Ascalon, in Liber Annuus, XXIV, 1974, p. 250) - This Anastasius is known, only by this dedication-inscription.

Anastasius, St. The AA.SS. August 17 mention: iter S. Anastasii, Interamnam (?), in the 6th century.

Anastasius, monk of the Convent of St. Euthymius (died 666).

Anastasius, patriarch of Jerusalem. (458-479) He erected a church over the tomb and the grotto where St. Euthymius died in 473 in the laura of Khan el Ahmar. Anastasius was the successor of Juvenal, who was patriarch of Jerusalem from 422 to 458. The feast of Juvenal (Juvenalis) and Anastasius was in the Church of the Apostles on July 1, according to the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. Greek synaxaries have the feast on July 2.

Anastasius, the Persian. His original name was Magundot. He served in the army of Chosroas II of Persia when it captured Jerusa­ lem in 614. There he was converted and adopted the name of Anastasius' the risen one'. He was allowed to preach in Caesarea. There he was arrested. He was taken to Bethsaloe on the Euphrates, where h a suffered martyrdom in 628. - The head of Anastasius was transferred to Rome to the church of the martyrs Vincent and Anastasius, on the site 'Fountain of Salvius'. - The Melkite liturgy has his feast on Jan 22; the Roman Martyrology also on Jan 22, together with 70 companions. The Greek Church venerates him on Jan 24. - Some christians, who were captives in Persia, and a monk, who was the companion of St. Anastase, came to Palestine round 629-630. (Acta S. Anast. Persae, c. VI, n. 36-38; Miracula ejusdem, c. I, 6-11, 15)

Anastasius, priest and superior of the monastery of the Nea in Jerusalem. Anastasius was asked in a letter by Pope Gregory the Great (590-604) to abolish the amusements in his monastery and to reconcile himself with the patriarch Amos (594-601).

Anastasius Sinaites, abbot. He went to Jerusalem. Then he settled at Mount Sinai, where he excelled in ascetism. He succeeded John Climacus, and was a polemic writer. He died in peace round 700. The Greek church venerates him on April 21.

Anastasius, the Count. Inscription in the Monastery of Lady Mary at Beit-Shean. The entrance to the large hall mentions on a mosaic in a Greek inscription Peter and Anastasius, Christ-loving counts. For the inscription, see also: Zosimus.

Anatole. She was the sister of Photine, the Samaritan woman (Jn 4, 1-42).

Anatolius. He was the son of the Samaritan woman.

Anatolus, bishop of Laodicaea, Syria. (Roman Martyrology July 3) Anatolus was ordained bishop by Theoctetus of Caesarea, Palestine, in order to succeed on the see of Caesarea. Anatolus went to the Council that condemned Paul of Samosate. The synod of local bishops in Antioch condemned Paul of Samosate in 264, and deposed him in 268. Anatolus returned from the council of Antioch, and was retained at Laodicea and installed as bishop of Laodicea, Syria. This see had become vacant through the death of his friend Eusebius. Anatole ruled his bishopric under the Emperors Probus (276-282) and Carus (282-283). Anatolus died just before the persecution of Diocletian (283-313). Eusebius and Anatolus were from Alexandria. In Egypt their feast is on July 3.

André. This Belgian priest saved Jews during the Second World War. Yad Washem honoured him as a Righteous One of the Nations. André died on June 1, 1973 near Namur in Belgium.

Andrea of the city of Achon. Salimbene (34) mentions Friar Andrea, round 1221.

Andreas Chiensis, martyr by the Turks in 1465. His 'Acta' in Greek by Georgio Trapezuntio, are translated in Latin. (AA.SS. May 29)

Andreas et Aponius seu Aporius, in Bethlehem, martyrs 41 CE. [AA.SS. Feb 10)

Andreas of Bologna. This Franciscan Father was, according to Salimbene, Minister Provincialis of the Holy Land, between 1255 and 1270. Andreas died in Rome round 1284, at the Sacred Penitentiary.

Andreas of Flanders. A certain Andreas of Flanders is mentioned about 1096 in ' Vita S. Nicolai peregr. I, II, c. Il, n. 44'. AA.SS. June 2.

Andrew, St. Apostle, the first-called. (Feast Nov 30 in the Martyr. Romanum; also Nov 30 in Greece). He was the brother of Simon Peter. Andrew came from Bethsaida in Galilee (Jn 1, 44) and was a disciple of John the Baptist before his call (Jn 1, 40). There are two traditions about his call: in Mk 1, 16 Andrew is called with Peter while they are fishing; in Jn 1, 40 Andrew was called with the 1 unnamed disciple' (John?), while they were in the company of John the Baptist, who pointed out Jesus as the lamb of God. -Andrew calls attention to the boy who had the loaves and fish which were distributed, (Jn 6, 8). In Jn 12, 22 Andrew acts as mediator between Jesus and the Greeks who asked Philip for an interview with Jesus. - According to some traditions, preserved by Eusebius and the 'Acts of Andrew', Andrew preached in Bithynia, Scythia, Macedonia and Achaia, where he was crucified at Patras. Andrew was commonly represented with an X-shaped cross as the instrument of his martyrdom. According to the Ethiopian Synaxarium (Takdhash 4) Andrew was hung up upon a tree and stoned to death in Ledya (Lydda). Lydda means here Lydia in Turkey.

Andrew: Church of St. Andrew. In Jericho the Coptic property has mosaics and Greek inscriptions of the 6th century. The church recalls probably the call of Andrew near the Jordan.

Andrew: His Head. In 1462, Pope Paul 11 solemnly deposited the relic of his head in the Vatican, close to the tomb of St. Peter. In 1964 Pope Paul VI returned the relic to the see of Constantinople.

Andrew, apostle and Sabinus, the priest. The lectionary of Paris has on April 29: 'in the building of the Disciples, the memory of Andrew, the Apostle'. Sabinus was the founder of the church. Andrew, the apostle, and Sabinus, the priest, are mentioned together on Aug 18 in the Georgian calendar.

Andrew, tribune, in Melitene in Armenia, martyred 297.

Andrew of Crete, the Jerusalemite. Andrew was born in Damascus round 660. He was ordained clerc of the church of Jerusalem by patriarch Theodore. Therefore Andrew is named the Jerusalemite. In 685 he was sent to Constantinople for the 6th oecumenical council against the Monophysites. He was indicated as archbishop of Cortyne in Crete. He defended the cult of the icons against Emperor Leo the Isaurian. He died in peace on the island of Mytilene in 740 (720?).

Andrew of Melitene. The brother of Gainos. Andrew was installed as hegumenos of the martyrium of Saint Menas, which is a chapel within the Armenian Cathedral of St. James in Jerusalem.

Andronicus, martyr. He is venerated in Palestine, according to the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on June 27, July 18, Sept 28, Oct 1, Oct 11. Andronicus was ordered to execute Paul and his sister Juliana at Ptolemais, Palestine, under Aurelian (271-275). The same order was given to Acacius and to Codratus (Quodratus). The three servants were converted at the martyrdom of Paul and Juliana, and were killed.

Andronicus, St., goldsmith, and his wife Athanasia. They lived in Jerusalem round 395. (Mart. Rom. Oct g)- Their 'Vitae' are fictitious: they lived in the 5th century in Antioch, they are called Andronicus and Athanasia of Egypt. - The AA.SS. mention Andronicus and his wife Athanasia on Oct 9; May 20. -

 Andronicus and his wife
Athanasia pilgrims to Jerusalem: These lovers of God are saluted in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 28th day of the month Hamle. After the death of their two children, Andronicus became a monk with Abba Daniel; Andronicus placed his wife in a house of virgins. Andronicus after 12 years made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem; Athanasia made the same pilgrimage. She recognized Andronicus during the journey. Both returned to Alexandria, but Abba Daniel said to Andronicus: 'Dwell in a place with the person who had been your companion during the journey'. Afterwards Athanasia, who always wore the garments of a man, died. Andronicus now discovered that Athanasia was a woman; a token which she left to her husband revealed that she was his wife. After a few days Andronicus died. Salutation to Andronicus. Salutation to Athanasia.

Andronikus, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Pannonia, Illyricum, according to the Greek list. Andronikus and Junius are mentioned by St. Paul in his letter to the Romans (Rom. 16, 17): Greet Andronikus and Junius, my kinsmen and my fellow prisoners; they are men of note among the apostles, and they were in Christ before me.. Andronikus and Junius are remembered by the Melkite liturgy on May 17.

Andronikus, together with Silas, Silvanus, Crescentius, Epainetus, all of the 70 disciples. The five are venerated by the Melkite liturgy on July 30.

Anectus, St. Martyr in Caesarea, Palestine, in 305. He escorted the Christians to the place of suffering, he was therefore condemned by the Governor Urbanus. First he was scourged by ten soldiers, then his hands and his feet were cut off, and finally he was beheaded (Mart. Rom. Memory June 27).

Angaeus, a levite. He is mentioned in the Gospel of Nikodemus XIV, 1: 'Phinees, a priest, and Adas, a teacher, and ANGAEUS, a levite, came from Galilee and they informed (in Jerusalem) the chiefs of the synagogue, the priests and the levites: We have seen Jesus, with his disciples, sitting on the mount, which is named Mamilch'.

Angela Carmelitana, St. She came to Palestine in 1217. (Vita S. Ang., c. II-IV, n. 4-3) (AA.SS. July 6)

Angela Merici, Saint, foundress of the Ursulines. She was born in Desenzano, Republic of Venice, probably on March 21, 1474. Around 1506, she was favoured with a vision 'Before your death, you will found a society of virgins at Brescia'. In 1516 she lived with the Patengoli family in order to console them because of the recent death of their two sons. In 1524 Angela undertook a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and returned in 1525. In 1535 Angela formed a group of girls into the Company of St. Ursula. Immediately after her death (1540) Angela was honoured as a saint by the people of Brescia. Angela was canonized on May 24, 1807, and in 1861 her cult was extended to the Universal Church by Plus IX.

SS. Angeli ad Pastores 'the Holy Angels to the Shepherds'. The chapel at the Latin Shepherds Field is dedicated to the SS. Angels. The chapel was inaugurated in 1954. Canada financed the construction, as is indicated by an inscription. The chapel reminds one of a tent.

Angelo of Spoleto, martyr, Blessed, and his companions, 1304-1314. In the Mart. Franciscanum we have on April 2.: In Armenia, Blessed Angelo of Spoleto, martyred by the Bulgars. - The Franciscan monk, Angelo of Spoleto, was sent by James ll, king of Aragon, to the Sultan of Egypt in 1303. Afterwards Angelo visited the Holy Land. In July 1307, he joined a group of Franciscans who went to the Tartars. In 1314 killed in Mauro Castro, by the Bulgars.

Angels: The Ethiopian Synaxarium has on the 13th of Khedar (= the third month, Nov 7-Dec 6): 'Salutation to the tens of thousands of the tens of thousands of angels and to the Cherubim and to the Seraphim'.

Angelus Bonus. (Fr. Benincasa, Vita S. Raynerii, c. XVI, n. I n. 162). He was in Palestine before 1160 (AA.SS. June 17).

Angelus of Jerusalem, Carmelite, May 5, Aug 25 (now transferred Aug 16). He was born in 1185 as a son of converted Jews in Jerusalem. He entered the Order of the Carmelites, afterwards he travelled to Sicily, where he acted as a preacher of penitence. In Licata, Sicily, he was martyred, 1220 or 1225, May 5. - His cult is in the Carmelite Order since 1456, and since 1584 in the breviary of the Carmelites.

Angelus of Licata (Sicily) see: Angelus of Jerusalem.

Anglican Bishopric in Jerusalem, since 1841): 1841, Samuel Alexander, nominated by England (1841-1845); Gobat, who was appointed by Prussia, (1845-1879); Barclay (1879-1881); the bishopric lapsed from 1881 to 1886. It continued from 1886 as an English bishopric: Benson began in 1886; Blyth ended his function on Oct 18, 1914.

Anianus of Alexandria, bishop, April 25; Dec 2; (in Venice, October 4) He was a cobbler, he was indicated by the Apostle Mark as his successor in the bishopric of Alexandria. His relics were brought to Venice. He does not have a feast in the Byzantine Church; the Copts venerate him on Nov 28. He is the patron of the cobblers.

Anicetus, papa. (AA.SS. April 17). He went from Palestine to Rome to become pope. (Mai., Prop., Con. 1, 22, 24) He ruled from 155 to 165.

Anna, Prophetess. (memory Sept 1 in Martyr. Rom.) And there was a prophetess Anna, the daughter of Phanu'el, of the tribe of Asher; she was of a great age, having lived with her husband seven years from her virginity, and as a widow till she was eighty-four. She did not depart from the temple, worshipping with fasting and prayer night and day. And coming up at that very hour she gave thanks to God, and spoke of him to all who were looking for the redemption of Jerusalem. (Lk 2, 36-40) - The Greek and the Armenian Churches venerate Anna (together with Simeon the Elder) on Feb 3, and on Aug 28; the Copts on Feb 2. - Anna has no church or chapel in Jerusalem. A three linear mosaic inscription at the Chapel of Dominus Flevit on the west slope of the Mount of Olives refers perhaps to this Anna. (Bagatti B. in Liber Annuus, VI, 1955/1956, p. 243-244)

Anna, St, wife of St. Joachim and mother of the Holy Virgin. Her name is found in the apocryphal gospels. Feast 26th July in Mart. Rom. - A house of Anna is venerated in the Convent of St. Anna, near the Pool of Bethesda in Jerusalem; another house of Anna is venerated in Sepphoris (Tzippori), 6 kms northwest of Nazareth. The Romans called this place Diocaesarea; its Arabic name is Saffuriya. An enclosure built by the Franciscans in 1880, contains ruins of a basilica with three aisles built in the 4th century by Joseph, Count of Tiberias. On July 26 the Franciscan community of Nazareth makes a pilgrimage to the shrine of St Anna in Sepphoris and celebrates there Holy Mass. Church of St Anna in Jerusalem: The Moslem writer Abul-Feda tells that before the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem, the church of St. Anna had already become a Moslem 'dar el ilm' -house of learning -, but that 'when the Franks took Jerusalem' it was once again turned into a church. Benedictine Sisters were then installed in the adjoining convent and St Anne's Abbey rose to great importance in the days of Baldwin I, who compelled his wife Arda, an Armenian princess, to take the veil there. (Hanauer, Walks in and around Jerusalem, 1926, p. 215) Death of Anna: According to tradition, Anna died at the age of 69 years; Joachim, her husband, at 80 years. Tradition does not mention who died first. A legend tells: the Virgin Mary was already an orphan when she left the temple at the age of 12 years, to be married to Joseph.

Death of Anna and Joachim: July 25 in the Georgian and Greek liturgy. - Greek synaxaries have on Dec 9 the Conception of the Virgin Mary.

Anna, the mother of prophet Samuel. see: Hannah.

Anna, a certain Anna of Jerusalem (Legenda). Round 1000. (AA.SS. July 26)

Anonymous (man) came to Palestine round 1125. (Acta B. Gerardi Arv., n. 4) (AA.SS. Aug 11)

Anonymous (pilgrim), came to Palestine in 1104. (Miracula S. Jacobi, n. 214) (AA.SS. July 25)

Anonymus, patriarch of Jerusalem, in the 7th century. (AA.SS. June 24)

Anselm. One of the Canons of the See of Ascalon, was made bishop of the new bishopric of Bethlehem in 1110.

Anselm of Mantova (Italy), servant of God. The Duke of Mantova called this Franciscan to his court. After the death of the Duke, Anselm went to Palestine. He lived in Bethlehem and in Aleppo; afterwards he went to Cairo and took care of the merchants of Venice. He died in the church in 1623.

Anselm Ruschi of Sabbioncello, servant of God. This Franciscan, born in 1646, died in Jerusalem in 1670 from the plague.

Anselmus de Buls, archbishop of Milan. He is mentioned, about 1096 in AA.SS. May 7.

Anselmus, prior Thaboris, (falsus), 1212. AA.SS. Aug 14.

Anthimus. He was one of the unmercenary saints of Arabia, who suffered martyrdom during the Diocletian persecution (285-313). Greek synaxaries mention together with Cosmas and Damianus, their brothers: ANTHIMUS, Leontius and Euprepius on Oct 17. The Roman Martyrology has Anthimus on September 27.

Anthony, bishop of Durazzo, confessor. In 1346 this Franciscan was the superior on Mount Sion. In 1348 he travelled through France, Spain and England. He became bishop of Durazzo (Albania). He died in 1363. The Franciscan Martyrologium has his memory on March 15.

Anthony, Blessed, Martyr in Armenia 1314, together with Monald and Francis Memory in the Franciscan Martyrologium on March 16.

Anthony Bontadini, Blessed. He was born in Ferrara (Italy), he entered the Franciscan Order in 1439. He visited Palestine. He died, soon after his return, in the pilgrims' hospital of Cotignola, Dec 1, 1482. Pope Leo XIII confirmed his cult in 1901.

Anthony of Rosate, martyr, Blessed. As place of his martyrdom is mentioned Egypt, or Syria, or Gaza in Palestine. He was born in Rosate, near Milan. According to tradition, he was sawn asunder in 1369. The Martyrologium Franciscanum remembers him on Feb 24.

Anthos, monk. He lived a certain time with the priest Theodosius in the church of Qadismu south of Jerusalem. (Vita Sabae, ch. 18)

Antibanis (Antipas). This disciple of John the evangelist, is saluted by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 16th day of the month Miyazya (April 6-May 5).

Antich Francis, Franciscan lay brother of Spain. He was murdered by Greek pirates in 1833.

Antichrist and Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem. Some Arab writers before the 16th century call the Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem ' Bab Lydda', the gate of Lydda'. This is because the road to Lydda and Jaffa starts from this gate, and also because some Moslem theologians believe that at the Gate of Lydda the Messiah el Dejjal (the Antichrist), will be defeated. Other Moslem theologians assert that this defeat will take place at Lydda itself, and they mention, as the actual spot, the famous Bir es Zaybac, or 'Quick silver Well'. It is inside the little building, under the great sycomore, half-way between Ramleh and Lydda. (Hanauer J. E. Walks in and around Jerusalem, 2nd Edition, 1926, London)

Antimasius, see: Artemion, one of the 70 disciples. Feast June 30.

Antioch. Baybars I, Sultan (1260-1277) of the Mamelukes conquered Antioch in 1268. Two Franciscan convents were destroyed.

Antiochos Strategios. The Arab text of 'Conquest of Jerusalem by the Persians' is attributed to Antiochos Strategios. This Antiochus, in a sermon to the population of Jerusalem, after the conquest of ' Jerusalem in 614, rebukes the men for directing their eyes to the ladies, instead of lifting their eyes to heaven. (PG, LXXXVI, 3249)

Antiochus, bishop of Acre (episc. Ptolemaidis), circa 400. (Vita S. Olympiadis, n. 14) (Analecta Bollandiana, XV, 420)

Antiochus, bishop of Lyon. He visited Palestine in 381. (AA.SS. Oct 15) Compare Justus, bishop of Lyon; Viator St.

Antiochus, priest. He visited Palestine round 385, together with Justus, bishop of Lyon and with Viator St., (AA.SS. Sept 2; Oct 21)

Antipas, St. Martyr. He was from Pergamon, Asia. He lived under Emperor Domitian (81-96). St John, who was exiled in the island of Patmos, qualifies Antipas as 'a faithful one, who was killed among you' (Revelation or Apocalypse 2, 13)

Antipater (Antipatrus) of Bosra. Feast June 13. He was bishop of Bosra about 460. He was questioned by Pope Leo I (440-461) about the decisions of the Council of Chalcedon (451). By the seventh general Council (787), Antipater was counted among the authorities of the Church.

Antipatris, bishop, St. Feast April 4. Perhaps to be identified with Antipater of Bosra (5th century), who is commemorated by the Greek Synaxaries on June 13.

Antipatris (locality). At Aphek the Ark of the Covenant was lost (1 Sam 4, 1). Aphek was a Philistine city. In the Hellenistic period it had the name Pegal. It was here that the High Priest met Alexander the Great, according to a Jewish tradition. In 35 BC Herod the Great built the square fortress and named it in memory of his father, Antipatris. St. Paul passed there on his way from Jerusalem to Caesarea, as a prisoner (Acts 23, 31). In the 4th century it was a bishopric.

Antonia-Fortress. Herod the Great rebuilt the Fortress Baris north of the temple, and renamed it Antonia, in honour of his friend, the triumvir Antonius.

Antoninus, St. Martyr (falsum). (Extracta ex Actis spuriis S. Antonini) The AA.SS. mention him, circa 304, on July 4.

Antoninus, St. together with Zebinus and Germanus, martyrs. They were decapitated in Caesarea, Palestine, in 308 by Governor Firmilianus. The memory is on Nov 13 in Mart. Rom.

Antoninus Martyr. He visited the Holy Land, at about 560-570, and wrote ITINERARIUM.

Antoninus Placentinus (Antonine of Placentia). This priest of Placentia (Italy) is known as Antoninus Martyr.

Antoninus, 27th bishop of Jerusalem, 2nd century (AA. SS).

Antonio de Aranda. Franciscan from the province of Castilla (Spain). In 1516 he was at the University of Alcala. On Sept 8, 1529 he came to Jerusalem, in the company of the Superior of Mount Sion. This Superior was Baptista de Macerata. Before Lent 1531 Antonio was sent to Tripoli (Lebanon). Antonio embarked on a Venetian ship to Cyprus. From Cyprus, he embarked after 48 days (June 4, 1531) and he landed at Venice on August 12, 1531. (Arce, Archivum Franciscanum Historicum, An. 68 (1975) p. 453-463)

Antonio Bonfadini, Blessed, confessor, Franciscan (memory Dec 1). He was born in Ferrara (Italy), he visited Palestine, and he died in 1482.

Antonius Chozebita. He was the author of MIRACULA B. V. MARIAE in CHOZIBA. (5th/6th century) (Analecta Bollandiana)

Antonius Manzius Pataviensis, Blessed. He came to Palestine before 1267 (AA.SS. Feb i).

Antonius, monk of Georgia. He brought a part of the rol1stone that was before the Holy Sepulchre and also a relic of the Cross to Symeon, the Younger, the Stylite.

Antoninus de Rosatis, Ordinis Minorum, martyr in 1369 by the Turks. He is mentioned on Feb 2 (AA. SS).

Antoninus of Ephesus, one of the Seven Sleepers, martyr, July 27. In the Eastern Church the feast is on Aug 1.

Anxouthenius: see Heliophotus.

Apelles, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Smyrna, in the Greek list. - The Roman Martyrology reads on April 22: 'Apelles and Lucius, out of the first disciples'. An APELLES is greeted by Paul in his letter to the Romans (Rom 16, 10).

Aphrodisius, later Biterrensis episcopus. (AA.SS. March 22)

Aphrodisius, Meldas and 64 companions, martyrs at Scythopolis (Beth-Shean). Without date. (AA.SS. May 4)

Aphthonius, founder of a shrine near Gethsemane; In the building of Aphthonius, was the dedication of an altar, July 12, according to the lectionary of Latal.

Apollinaria. She was the daughter of Anthemius, Emperor of the West (467-472). She went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and then retired to Scete in Egypt, where she posed as a eunuch. She healed her sister who by coincidence visited Scete. - The Greek liturgy has her feast on Jan 4.

Apollinaris Syncletica, Saint. Visited Palestine between 408-413. (Vita, auct. Simeone Metaphr., lat. vers., c. I, n. 1-6) AA.SS. Jan 5.

Apollinaris, virgin. The Roman Martyrology mentions on Jan 5: 'In Egypt the saint Apollinaris, virgin. ' - Perhaps to be identified with Apollinaria. (Greek liturgy Jan 4)

Apollo, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Caesarea, in Bithynia, in the Greek list. - The Roman Martyrology does not mention this Apollo. He is venerated by the Greek liturgy on Jan 8 and Jan 9.

Apollo, Sanctus, bishop of Caesarea Maritime in Palestine in the 2nd century, without year. Feast Dec 9 (AA.SS.)

Apollus: see Alexandra (April 21 in the Greek liturgy). Apollus was a servant of the Empress Alexandra, wife of Emperor Diocletian.

Apostles: 12 Apostles. The Oriental Church has a synaxis of the 12 apostles on June 30; the Western Church has their feast on the octave of SS. Peter and Paul.

Apostles: 70 Apostles. The Gospel of Luke (10, 1) relates the appointment of 70 (or 72) apostles. Moses had indicated a group of 70 elders (Num 11, 24), two men added themselves to the same rank. Legend adds Dionysius Areopagita and Simeon Niger to the 70 apostles, and so the number becomes 72. - Sometimes the number is 60 apostles: 72 minus the 12 apostles. In some eastern churches the group of 70 apostles is venerated on Jan 4.

Apostolic Delegation. From 1929 to 1950 the Apostolic Delegation for Egypt represented the Holy See in Palestine. The Apostolic Delegation, situated on Mount Sion, was destroyed in 1948. The Delegate, now living on the Mount of Olives, represents the Holy See in Jordan, Israel and Cyprus. - Apostolic DELEGATES, since 1950: Testa Gustave 1948-1953; Oddi Silvio 1953-1956; Sensi Giuseppe 1957-1962; Zanini Lino 1962-1965; Sepinsky Augustin 1966-1969; Laghi Pio 1969-1974; Carew, the now acting delegate is a Canadian. The Apostolic Delegation published in 1979 'Annuaire de l’Eglise Catholique en Terre Sainte'.

Apparition of the Cross: Sept 14 in the Palestinian-Gregorian calendar. For the APPARITION of the Cross was a synaxis (liturgical service) in the Martyrion; for the DEDICATION of the Cross, was a synaxis on Mount Sion.

Apphianus, St. He was a student from Lycia (Turkey). Before St. Aedesius, his brother and martyr, Apphianus rebuked the Governor Urbanus. The Governor bound Apphianus' feet in linen that was impregnated with oil, and set on fire. The body of the martyr was thrown into the sea. It happened at Caesarea, Palestine, in 306 under Emperor Galerius Maximianus (285-310). -Memory on April 2 in Mart. Rom.

Apselamos = Peter Apselamos.

Aquila, martyr, Mart. Rom. Memory March 23. He was martyred in Caesarea, Palestine, together with Domitius, Pelagia, Eparchius and Theodosia.

Aquila, Saint. In the Melkite liturgy, memory on July 14. Aquila was from Pontus, Asia Minor. He was a weaver of tents. He was a Christian in Rome, but by the edict of Emperor Claudius, about 50, he was, together with his wife Priscilia, in Corinth and there gave hospitality to St. Paul. Aquila and Priscilla followed Paul on his journey to Ephesus. Paul departed from Ephesus to Jerusalem. Aquila and Priscilla instructed Apollos of Alexandria, who knew only the baptism of John the Baptist, in the doctrine of Paul. Probably Aquila and Priscilia returned to Rome. They are called 'my fellowworkers' in the letter of Paul to the Romans (Rom 16, 3); they are greeted by Paul in his second letter to Timotheus (2 Tm 4, 19). Nothing is known about the further life of Aquila and his wife Priscilia. The Roman Martyrology has Aquila and Priscilia on July 8.

Aquilina, St. Martyr at Byblos (Phoenicia) under Diocletian. She was arrested by the prefect Nikandros. Her feast is on June 13.

Aquilinus, St. He did not receive in Souka the malcontent monks of the Great Laura of Sabas. The dissidents went then to the desert of Tekoa, where they founded the New Laura in 508. (Khirbet Tina in Wadi Bassas)

Aquitaine (in Gaul): Some anonymous men of Aquitaine, who were soldiers in Syria, round 250. They are mentioned in 'Miracula S. Fidis Aginnensis', auctore Bernardo Scolastico, n. 9. (Analecta Bollandiana, VIll, 80).

Aranda. He speaks (1530) about the Way of the Passion.

Arcadius, bishop of Cyprus. (BHG 684) A homily of Arcadius was read on the feast of S. George of Lydda on Nov 3.

Arcadius, emperor (395-408), died on Oct 1, 408 (Socrate, Hist. Eccl VI, 23) The Georgian liturgy has his feastday on Aug 27, together with the memory of Praylius, archbishop of Jerusalem (416-422).

Arcadius of Jerusalem, monk, confessor. He was the elder son of Xenophon, and studied in Beirut. He returned to his sick father in Constantinople, who upon seeing Arcadius, recuperated. On his return to Palestine, Arcadius was shipwrecked. Eventually, he settled in a cave near the monastery of St. Sabas in the wilderness of Judaea. His brother was John, son of Xenophon. Arcadius and his brother John are commemorated on Sept 30 by the Georgian liturgy. The Greek Church venerates both on Jan 25.

Arcanus, Saint. He is mentioned, together with Saint Bernardus and Saint Gerardus in AA.SS. Oct 14, (round 1099).

Archangel Gabriel, synaxe; and commemoration of St. Stephen the Sabaite: in the Melkite liturgy on July 13. The Archangel Gabriel is already commemorated by a synaxe on March 26; he has another synaxe on July 13. Perhaps this second feast was to implore the help of Gabriel against the Agarians (descendants of Agar, Arabs, Moslems).

Archangels, i.e. Gabriel and Michael. The Syriac-Jacobite calendars have the feast on June 6; the Palestinian-Georgian calendar has June 6 and June 7; the Copts venerate Michael on June 6, 7, 8. Greek synaxaries mention a synaxis of Michael on June 9.

Archelais, martyr. Feast Feb 9 (Palestinian-Georgian cal.)

Archippus, disciple of St. Paul, martyr, (March 20; in the Byzantine church on Feb 19, together with Philemon Nov 23) Archippus lived and worked in Colosse. Greek Menologies mention him as bishop of Laodicea. Archippus was martyred under Emperor Nero (54-68), probably in Colosse.

Archistrategi, Michael and Gabriel and the other angelic 'powers'. They are commemorated by a synaxe on Nov 8 in the Greek liturgy. - Theology speaks of 9 groups of Heavenly Beings: Virtues, Powers, Principalities, Dominations, Thrones, Archangels, Angels, Cherubim, Seraphim.

Architriclinus (Master of the table at the wedding of Cane, John 2, 1-11). In the middle ages the name of the function was considered as a personal name.

Arculfus. He visited Palestine round 670 (AA.SS. Sept 23) He has seen the traces of the cisels in the rock of the tomb of Christ.

Arda, Armenian princess, daughter of Prince Toros. She was the wife of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem, 1100-1118. He compelled her to take the veil in St Anne's Abbey at Jerusalem.

Arduinus, Angligena, Saint (Vita S. Ard., auct. Vitagliano, n. 1, 4) Before 627 he came to Palestine (AA.SS. Oct 25).

Areopolis: Greek name for the city Rabath Moba, the ancient Ar Moab, Er Rabbah in East-Jordan, 12 Kms north of Kerak.

Ares (Areus). see: Aretis (in Ascalon)

Aretas. see: Arethas of Najran.

Aretas, the unmentionable. see: Stephanus, the unprofitable clerk.

Arethas and with him innumerable martyrs who suffered in the town Najran under ruler Dhu Nuwas. The persecution of the Christians of Najran (= town in North Yemen) by the Jewish proselyte king of Himyar, Yusuf Dhu Nuwas, in about 523, is recorded in Greek, Syriac, and Ethiopian literature. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar mentions them on April 20; also on Oct 1; and Oct 20. -The Martyrologium Romanum has on Oct 24 the passion of Aretas and 340 companions.

Aretis, Promotheus (or Poromotus), Elijah of Egypt, who were martyred in Palestine. Memory in the village of Metoba on June 11. Metoba is the actual Umm-Tuba, left from the highway Jerusalem to Bethlehem. - The lectionary of Paris writes: Commemoration of

Aretis, Poromotus. The three martyrs were killed in Ascalon on Dec 14. They have a second memory on Dec 14 in the Church of the Anastasis in Jerusalem.

Areus: see Aretis (in Ascalon).

Aristaenetas, St. and Elpidius, St. They visited Gaza round 400 (Apopht. ad vitam S. Antonii Magni, c. VI, n. 43) (AA.SS. Jan 17)

Aristarchus, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Apamea (Syria), according to the Greek list. - The Roman Martyrology (Aug 4) has Aristarchus: he was a disciple of Paul and imprisoned together with Paul (Col 4, 10); Paul appointed him bishop of Thessalonica. Aristarchus was martyred under Nero (54-68). - The Melkite liturgy has on April 14: Aristarchus, Pudens, and Trophimus (three of the 70 disciples).

Aristarchus, another of the 70 disciples in the Greek list.

Aristides Leonori, engineer, Third Order of St. Francis, servant of God. He was born on July 28, 1856 in Rome. There he ruled the Hospice of St. Philip Neri from 1882 to 1907. At Washington he built (1898) the College for the Holy Land; he built at Cairo (1908) the Church of St Joseph. In 1909 he visited Jerusalem, he died in Rome on July 30, 1928. (Compare: Shilling Godfrey)

Aristobulus, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Britain (March 15 in the Greek Church) He was the brother of Barnabas, he followed the Apostle Paul. Finally, he is said to have gone to England where he converted many people to Christianity. (The Romans conquered Britain in 43 CE, under Emperor Claudius (41-54). The AA.SS. mention Aristobulus on March 15: 'falso episcopus Bethaniae nuncupatus'.

Arius (Sanctus) sive Macarius at Asterius, bishops of Petra, circa 350. AA.SS. June 20.

'Ark of the Covenant': At the 9th milestone from Jerusalem in a Place that is called Kiriat-Jearim, where the Ark of the Law of God was, there has been built a church (Petrus Diaconus). - The feast of the 'Ark' was on July 2, according to the Georgians and the Armenians. - The Sisters of St. Joseph of the Apparition have erected, on the ruins of the Church of the 5th century, a new church that is dedicated to 'Mary, Ark of the Covenant'. A statue of the Virgin is placed on a pedestal. The church on the hill (Kirjat-Jearim means Town of the Forests) overlooks the area. The shrine recalls the history in 1 Sam 7, 1: 'And the men of Kiriat-Jearim came and took up the ark of the Lord, and brought it to the house of Abin'adab on the hill; and they consecrated his son Eleazar, to have charge of the Ark of the Lord. ' The Arabic name is Deir el Azhar (Monastery of Eleazar). Beneath the Byzantine Church was found the mosaic pavement of a synagogue. On the grounds were found tiles with the stamp X Leg. Fret. Indeed, the tenth Legio Fretensis was established here to guard the road to Jerusalem. The name Fretensis indicates that this legio was related to the freta, the straits, probably the Straits of Messina, between Italy and Sicily.

'Ark of the Covenant':
Title of the Holy Virgin in the litany of Loreto.

Arkadius of Jerusalem. see Arcadius of Jerusalem.

Armenia: Among the Franciscan victims of the persecution by the Turks in Armenia in 1920, we remember: Francis de Vittorio da Rutiliano (Italy), 38 years, killed Jan 23, 1920; Alfred Dolenz da Magy (Hungary), 67 years, lay brother, killed Jan 23, 1920; Salvator Sabatini da Pizzoli (Italy) (1875 - 1920, Jan 23); Albert Amarisse da Cave (Italy), 46 years, killed Jan 23, 1920; Stefan Jalincatian of Morasc (Less Armenia), Franciscan; Joseph Achilleus of Morasc (Less Armenia), 59 years, killed on Feb 15, 1920.

Armenian anchorites in the valley of Jehosaphat, Jerusalem. They lived there in the 12th century, (attested by John Phocas, PPTS, vol V, pp. 22-23).

Armenian anchorites of Choziba: The necropolis of Choziba, 150 meters east of the Monastery of SS. John and George of Choziba, reveals many Armenian names. The 213 funerary inscriptions which are in a cave, include names of Armenian anchorites.

Armenians and Post Office in Jerusalem. The Austrian Post Office which was the first post and telegraphic office to operate in Palestine (round 1869) was located in the Armenian quarter and was staffed by Armenians. (Hintlian K. History of the Armenians in the Holy Land, 1976, p. 63 note). Since 1973 is in the ancient Austrian Post Office the Christian Information Centre.

Armenians, whose names the Lord knows: In 1895 a mosaic with an Armenian inscription was discovered in the Musrara Quarter, north of Damascus Gate in Jerusalem. The mosaic has 40 medallions. The inscription was 'For the memory and salvation of all the Armenians, whose names the Lord knows'. The inscription was in the funerary chapel of Polyeuctes.

Arnaldus de Comps (?), magister of the Hospitalers. (Vita S. Bonae, c. [, n. 22) He was in Palestine in the 12th century. (AA.SS. May 22)

Arnias and Lekotes, shepherds. Luke does not mention the number or the names of the shepherds. Legend names them Arnias and Lekotes.

Arnulf, canon of St. Augustine. In June 1119, while all the canons were taking rest, Arnulf went to rest beside the cenotaph of lsaac in the mosque of Hebron. Feeling fresh air, he saw a fissure and dropped down a stone. He opened the fissure and found the bodies (?). After the Crusades the place was closed.

Arnulf of Audenarde (Belgium). This knight was killed near Ascalon in 1107. He was buried under the ancient portico (= entrance at the west) of the Church of the Assumption in Jerusalem

Arnulfus, third patriarch (1112-1115) of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem.

Arsenius, St. Confessor. He was born at Bethany in Palestine, under Emperor Basil 1 (867-886). He took the monastic habit at 12, studied at Seleucie on the Orontes-river, and was ordained a priest. From Seleucie he went to Constantinople under hegumenos Tryphon, and he was ordained archbishop of Corcyre by the patriarch Theophylactes about 933. He went to Constantinople in order to appease the unjust feelings of Emperor Constantin Porphyrogenetes (912-956) against the notables of Corcyre. On his return, he fell ill at Corinth. The date of his death is unknown. - The Melkite liturgy has his memory on Jan 19. He is not listed in the Roman Martyrology.

Arsenius, patriarch of Jerusalem, 1016-1024. AA.SS.: July 26. See also: Simeon Armenus, St.

Arsuf, martyrs at Arsuf. Arsuf is the Arab name of the stronghold Apollonia, on the coast between Jaffa and Caesarea. Bybars 1, (1260-1277), caliph of Egypt, conquered Caesarea and Arsuf in 1265. Christians fell as martyrs.

Artemas: see: Artemion, one of the 70 disciples. Feast in the Greek liturgy on June 30.

Artemion, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Lystra in the Greek list (June 30) - Artemion is not mentioned in the Roman Martyrology.

Arthur Blessitt. see Blessitt.

Arwa. This Israelitish woman is saluted in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 30th day of the month Genbot. During the absence of her husband, she refused to commit adultery, she raised up a dead child from the grave in Egypt. She dressed in male garments, and departed on a ship and was asked by the old king of an island to become his successor. Then she revealed her sex, but refused to rule as a queen. Later her husband visited her on the island. She died and was buried by her husband.

Ascalon and Gaza: Under Julian the Apostate (361-363) the pagans in Ascalon and Gaza martyred a great number of virgins, women, nuns and monks. They opened the venter of their victims, filled them up with wheat and threw them to the pigs. The Melkite liturgy has the memory on March 29. They are remembered together with Marc, bishop of Arethusa, who was martyred under Julian in 362, and with Cyril the deacon, who was martyred in Heliopolis (Baalbek in Lebanon) in 362. - The Roman Martyrology mentions on March 29, only Cyril, the deacon.

Ascanius. See Nicanor Ascanius, Blessed, Franciscan, martyred Damascus 1860. The feast is on July 10.

Ascension on Mount of Olives. An octogonal edicule in the centre of an octogonal court, contains a slab of rock with the so-called footprint left by Christ when ascending into heaven. On the Feast of the Ascension, the Franciscans erect tents on either side of the entrance of the court. The Greek-Orthodox have their tent for prayer near the southern wall of the enclosure. The Armenians occupy the opposite, northern wall. On the eastern wall, the Copts have their chapel-tent near the Armenians. The Syrians occupy their worship-tent on the eastern wall, near the Greek-Orthodox.

Asclepas of Gaza, bishop. He assisted at the Council of Nicaea (325).

Ascoli. see: Belardo di Ascoli (Italy).

Asculum: Crusaders of the town of Asculum (= town of Picenum) are mentioned round 1096, in 'Miracula S. Emygdii, n. 35'. (AA.SS. Aug 5)

Asenath: see Asineth (Aseneth)

Ashdod: see Azot.

Asher: Son of Jacob and Zilpah, the slave of Leah. (Gn 30, 13). - Name of one of the twelve tribes of Israel. The tribe of Asher occupied the coast, north of the mount Carmel. Anna, the prophetess in the New Testament, was of the tribe of Asher (Lk 2, 36).

Asher Abba: The Ethiopian Synaxarium mentions on the 11th day of the month Genbot 'On this day Abba Asher, the teacher of Bali, was martyred as he was going to Jerusalem in the time of Wanag Sagad (died 1540), the king. Asher worshipped before they cut off his head with the sword, and afterwards they burnt him in the fire, at the gates of Jerusalem, at the place where the foot of our Lord stood'(place of the Ascension?).

Asineth, wife of Joseph of Egypt. She is named among the 'just of the Old Testament' on the First Sunday of the Advent in the Eastern Church. - The Ethiopian Synaxarium has a salutation to ASNET (Asenath, Aseneth) the wife of saint Joseph, the just, the son of Jacob-Israel, on the first day of the month of Saneh (the tenth month: june 5 - july 4).

Aspebet-Peter, bishop of the camps (Paremboles). Round 420 Arab sheikhs, received the order to impede the persecuted Christians of Persia to flee to the Roman Empire. Aspebet favoured the escape. He was betrayed and he fled to the Romans. The prefect of the Orient, Anatolus, appointed him as chief of the Saracen tribes of Arabia. Aspebet brought his sick son Terebon to Euthyme, the Great. This monk healed Terebon. Aspebet converted to Christianity and adopted the name Peter. Round 425, he was ordained 'bishop of the camps' by Juvenal of Jerusalem. His bishopric 'Paremboles, Camps (Castra Sarracenorum) extended between the monastery of St. Euthymius (Khan el-Ahmar or Khan es-Sahel) and the monastery of St. Theoctist (Deir el-Moukelik in wadi Dabor). Peter was present at the Council of Ephesus in 431. After his return he represented the Acts of Ephesus to Euthymius. The signature of Peter was: Petros, episcopos Paremboloon.

Assisi. AA.SS. Oct 4 mention: Iter monachorum Hierosolymitanorum quatuor Assisium (in 353 four monks) - iter eremitarurn Palaestinorum Assisium (in 513).

Assumptionists or Augustinians of the Assumption. They were founded in 1845 by E. Daude d'Alzon. They came to Jerusalem and possess the sanctuary St. Peter's in Gallicantu (cock-crow).

Asterius, Sanctus, bishop of Petra, about 350. (AA.SS. June 20, together with St. Arius sive, Macarius)

Asynkrites (Asynkritus), one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Hyrcania. In the Roman Martyrology he is listed with Herodion on April 8. He is greeted by Paul in his letter to the Romans (Rm 16, 14).

Atarbius: He was an emissary of Ephiphanius of Constantia, and began anti-Origenistic propaganda in Palestine (395). Then Jerome foresook his allegiance to Origen's teaching, while Rufinus remained loyal to the doctrine of Origen.

Athanasia, St., wife of Andronicus, the goldsmith in Jerusalem. (Mart. Rom. Oct 9)

Athanasia, martyr, Jan 31 and June 28. She was the mother of three daughters-martyrs: Theodota, Theoctista, Eudoxia. - In the Greek synaxaries her feast is on Jan 31. In the Palestinian-Georgian calendar the 4 women, together with the martyrs Cyrus and his disciple John, are remembered on June 28 'in the church of the Resurrection'.

Athanasius of Alexandria (Athanasius, the Great), St., born at Alexandria, about 295, died Alexandria, May 2, 373. (Feast on May 2). He was bishop of Alexandria from 328 to 373. Emperor Constantine (335) exiled him to Treves in northern Gaul. Athanasius promoted the monastic ideal in his travels through Italy and Gaul. He went to Sardica (in Bulgaria), where a general council had been summoned by the Emperors Constans and Constantius II (343). Constantius II allowed Athanasius to return to his see in Alexandria, where he arrived in Oct 346. During this journey to Alexandria he visited Palestine. - Three archbishops of Alexandria (Alexander, Athanasius, Cyrillus) are commemorated in Jerusalem on Jan 18, according to the calendar of the Georgians.

Athanasius, St. Deacon of Jerusalem and Martyr, July 4 in Mart. Rom. He was tormented by the heretics who followed Eutyches (born 375, condemned by Chalcedon, died 454). Finally Athanasius was killed round 452 by the sword. Particular feast in the Latin Patriarchate. The AA.SS. has his feast on July 5.

Athenadorus of Neocaesarea in Pontus. In 233 he went, with his brother Gregory of Neocaesarea, to Caesarea in Palestine.

Athenais: see Eudokia Augusta (Athenais), wife of Emperor Theodosius II.

Atherius, archbishop from the region of Asia. Round 531 he was in Palestine. (Vita S. Joh. Silent., auct. Cyrilo, n. 15) (AA.SS. May 13)

Attard (Achard), archbishop of Nazareth. Attard and Onfroi II de Toron and Guillaume de Barres and Jocelin Piseau (or Pessel) travelled from the Holy Land to Constantinople to arrange for Baldwin III a marriage with Theodora. Her uncle, Emperor Manuel Comnenus consented. Attard died on this journey to Constantinople. Theodora came in the autumn of 1158 to Jerusalem.

Augustinus Papiensis. He came to Palestine in the 10th century. (AA.SS. July 20)

Aurelianenses, (men of Orleans in France). They were sent by Saint Evurtius to Palestine round 330. (Vita S. Evurtii, c. II, n. 13) (AA.SS. Sept 7)

Aurelius, Eutychis, Zanthius and Theoon. The Roman copper mine at Site 23 in Timna has near the upper opening of the tunnel an inscription in Greek letters. The inscription is topped by a rockcarving of an eagle standing straddle-legged and with a laurel (?) wreath in its beak. Only part of the inscription is readible. It starts with ' In memory ' (Mnesthe), and mentions further the names Aurelius, Eutychis, Zanthius and Theoon. A cross is scratched unto the wall next to the inscription. The names are not carved into the wall at the same time, nor by the same hand, but must have been added every time a man died and was buried nearby. It is clearly a memorial inscription and seems to be related to several tumuli found just outside the upper entrance of the tunnel. (Rothenberg Benno, Timna p. 210)

Ausfridus, Normannus. (Mirac. S. Wulfranni, c. III, n. 25) (AA.SS. March 20) Ausfridus came to Palestine in 1056.

Australian soldiers, who fell in Palestine in World War I (1914-1918). They are buried on the military cemetery on Mount Scopus.

Austrian World War I graves in Palestine. Austrian soldiers fought side by side with the Germans, as allies of the Turkish army against the British troops.

Auxibius of Cyprus, bishop, confessor. In the Menologium of Basilius II the feast is on Feb 17. Auxibius was from Rome, he escaped from the house of his pagan parents. He was instructed by St. Markus as preacher for Cyprus.

Avdalga see: Raisus.

Avedilk, Armenian. He invented a siege machine and in 1124 was summoned from Cilicia to offer his services in the siege of Tyre.

Avitus, Viennensis, St. He sent legates to Palestine between 518 and 523 (AA.SS. Feb 6).

Avraham Kerem see: Finn James.

Awerkios = Abercius.

Awramios see: Abraham.

Azarias of Babylon in the fiery furnace, Aug 24. See Three companions. The Roman Martyrology commemorates the 3 companions on Dec 16.

Azkir See Arethas.

Azot (Azotus), the later name of Ashdod. Azot had a Crusaders' fortress on the coast. Azot fell to the Muslims round 1280. There the Franciscan monk Philippus was martyred. (AA.SS. March 7)

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